Metamaterials are artificial optical media composed of sub-wavelength metallic and dielectric building blocks that feature optical phenomena not present in naturally occurring materials1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Although they can serve as the basis for unique optical devices that mould the flow of light in unconventional ways, three-dimensional metamaterials suffer from extreme propagation losses8,9. Two-dimensional metamaterials (metasurfaces) such as hyperbolic metasurfaces for propagating surface plasmon polaritons10,11 have the potential to alleviate this problem. Because the surface plasmon polaritons are guided at a metal–dielectric interface (rather than passing through metallic components), these hyperbolic metasurfaces have been predicted to suffer much lower propagation loss while still exhibiting optical phenomena akin to those in three-dimensional metamaterials. Moreover, because of their planar nature, these devices enable the construction of integrated metamaterial circuits as well as easy coupling with other optoelectronic elements. Here we report the experimental realization of a visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface using single-crystal silver nanostructures defined by lithographic and etching techniques. The resulting devices display the characteristic properties of metamaterials, such as negative refraction1,2,3,4,5 and diffraction-free propagation6,7, with device performance greatly exceeding those of previous demonstrations. Moreover, hyperbolic metasurfaces exhibit strong, dispersion-dependent spin–orbit coupling, enabling polarization- and wavelength-dependent routeing of surface plasmon polaritons and two-dimensional chiral optical components12,13,14,15. These results open the door to realizing integrated optical meta-circuits, with wide-ranging applications in areas from imaging and sensing to quantum optics and quantum information science.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Light: Science & Applications Open Access 19 September 2022
Nature Communications Open Access 14 June 2022
eLight Open Access 10 January 2022
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Pendry, J. B. Negative refraction makes a perfect lens. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
Shelby, R. A., Smith, D. R. & Schultz, S. Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction. Science 292, 77–79 (2001).
Yao, J. et al. Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires. Science 321, 930 (2008).
Naik, G. V. et al. Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 7546–7551 (2014).
Esfandyarpour, M., Garnett, E. C., Cui, Y., McGehee, M. D. & Brongersma, M. L. Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices. Nature Nanotechnol. 9, 542–547 (2014).
Salandrino, A. & Engheta, N. Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: theory and simulations. Phys. Rev. B 74, 075103 (2006).
Liu, Z. W., Lee, H., Xiong, Y., Sun, C. & Zhang, X. Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects. Science 315, 1686 (2007).
Shalaev, V. M. Optical negative-index metamaterials. Nature Photon. 1, 41–48 (2007).
Poddubny, A., Iorsh, I., Belov, P. & Kivshar, Y. Hyperbolic metamaterials. Nature Photon. 7, 948–957 (2013).
Kildishev, A. V., Boltasseva, A. & Shalaev, V. M. Planar photonics with metasurfaces. Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
Liu, Y. M. & Zhang, X. Metasurfaces for manipulating surface plasmons. Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 141101 (2013).
Lin, J. et al. Polarization-controlled tunable directional coupling of surface plasmon polaritons. Science 340, 331–334 (2013).
Rodriguez-Fortuno, F. J. et al. Near-field interference for the unidirectional excitation of electromagnetic guided modes. Science 340, 328–330 (2013).
Kapitanova, P. V. et al. Photonic spin Hall effect in hyperbolic metamaterials for polarization-controlled routing of subwavelength modes. Nature Commun. 5, 3226 (2014).
Petersen, J., Volz, J. & Rauschenbeutel, A. Chiral nanophotonic waveguide interface based on spin-orbit interaction of light. Science 346, 67–71 (2014).
Baski, A. A. & Fuchs, H. Epitaxial growth of silver on mica as studied by AFM and STM. Surf. Sci. 313, 275–288 (1994).
Park, J. H. et al. Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics. Adv. Mater. 24, 3988–3992 (2012).
Johnson, P. B. & Christy, R. W. Optical constants of noble metals. Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
Palik, E. D. Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids Vol. 3 353–357 (Academic Press, 1998).
Wu, Y. et al. Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver. Adv. Mater. 26, 6106–6110 (2014).
Fan, X. B., Wang, G. P., Lee, J. C. W. & Chan, C. T. All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 073901 (2006).
Smith, D. R. & Schurig, D. Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with inde finite permittivity and permeability tensors. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003).
Lee, S. Y. et al. Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213907 (2012).
Huang, L. L. et al. Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity. Light Sci. Appl. 2, e70 (2013).
Bychkov, Y. A. & Rashba, E. I. Oscillatory effects and the magnetic susceptibility of carriers in inversion layers. J. Phys. C 17, 6039–6045 (1984).
Onoda, M., Murakami, S. & Nagaosa, N. Hall effect of light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083901 (2004).
Raether, H. Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings Ch. 1 (Springer, 1988).
Silva, A. et al. Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials. Science 343, 160–163 (2014).
Huang, K. C. Y. et al. Electrically driven subwavelength optical nanocircuits. Nature Photon. 8, 244–249 (2014).
Hafezi, M., Demler, E. A., Lukin, M. D. & Taylor, J. M. Robust optical delay lines with topological protection. Nature Phys. 7, 907–912 (2011).
We acknowledge support from ONR-MURI (FA9550-12-1-0024), NSF-AMO (PHY-0969816), NSF-CUA (PHY-1125846) and DARPA SPARQC (W31P4Q-12-1-0017). We carried out all film deposition and device fabrication at the Harvard Center for Nanoscale Systems. J.P. acknowledges I. R. Hooper for useful discussions.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
High, A., Devlin, R., Dibos, A. et al. Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface. Nature 522, 192–196 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14477
This article is cited by
Electrically controllable chirality in a nanophotonic interface with a two-dimensional semiconductor
Nature Photonics (2022)
Nature Communications (2022)
Light: Science & Applications (2022)
Nature Electronics (2022)