a, Phase-contrast images of colony morphologies of rhesus macaque rsESCs (ORMES22 and ORMES23), rhesus macaque rsiPSCs and chimpanzee rsiPSCs. b, Immunofluorescence images of NANOG, SOX2, DNMT3b, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-80 protein expression in ORMES23 rsESCs. ORMES23 rsESCs were also stained for alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and OCT4 immunohistochemistry (top right). c, Haematoxylin and eosin staining images of teratomas generated by chimpanzee rsiPSCs show lineage differentiation towards three germ layers. d, Schematic representation of epiblast grafting experiment with GFP-labelled ORMES23 rsESCs (Please refer to Supplementary Fig. 1 for details). A, anterior; P, posterior; D, distal. e, Fluorescence images of grafted embryos after in vitro culture. GFP-labelled ORMES23 rsESCs were grafted to posterior, distal and anterior regions of epiblasts of isolated non-intact and non-viable E7.5 mouse embryos and cultured in vitro for 36 h before fixation and visualization by an inverted fluorescence microscope. Arrowhead indicates a cell clump failed to distribute. Dashed line indicates dispersed cells in the posterior region of grafted embryo. Blue, DAPI. Insets show higher-magnification images of GFP-labelled cells. f, Top, quantification of the extent of cell spreading of GFP-labelled ORMES23 rsESCs after being grafted to different regions of E7.5 mouse epiblasts. Bottom, incorporation efficiency of grafted GFP-labelled ORMES23 rsESCs in mouse E7.5 epiblasts. Error bars indicate s.d. ( n, indicated on the graph, independent experiments); t-test, * P < 0.05.