We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000–3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000–5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, ∼8,000–7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a ∼24,000-year-old Siberian6. By ∼6,000–5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact ∼4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced ∼75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least ∼3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin9 of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.
European Nucleotide Archive
The aligned sequences are available through the European Nucleotide Archive under accession number PRJEB8448. The Human Origins genotype dataset including ancient individuals can be found at (http://genetics.med.harvard.edu/reichlab/Reich_Lab/Datasets.html).
We thank P. Bellwood, J. Burger, P. Heggarty, M. Lipson, C. Renfrew, J. Diamond, S.Pääbo, R. Pinhasi and P. Skoglund for critical comments, and the Initiative for the Science of the Human Past at Harvard for organizing a workshop around the issues touched on by this paper. We thank S. Pääbo for support for establishing the ancient DNA facilities in Boston, and P. Skoglund for detecting the presence of two related individuals in our data set. We thank L. Orlando, T. S. Korneliussen, and C. Gamba for help in obtaining data. We thank Agilent Technologies and G. Frommer for help in developing the capture reagents. We thank C. Der Sarkissian, G. Valverde, L. Papac and B. Nickel for wet laboratory support. We thank archaeologists V. Dresely, R. Ganslmeier, O. Balanvosky, J. Ignacio Royo Guillén, A. Osztás, V. Majerik, T. Paluch, K. Somogyi and V.Voicsek for sharing samples and discussion about archaeological context. This research was supported by an Australian Research Council grant to W.H. and B.L. (DP130102158), and German Research Foundation grants to K.W.A. (Al 287/7-1 and 7-3, Al 287/10-1 and Al 287/14-1) and to H.M. (Me 3245/1-1 and 1-3). D.R. was supported by US National Science Foundation HOMINID grant BCS-1032255, US National Institutes of Health grant GM100233, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.