Letter | Published:

Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon

Nature volume 518, pages 516519 (26 February 2015) | Download Citation

Abstract

Quantum teleportation1 provides a ‘disembodied’ way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by previously shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. As well as being of fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication2, distributed quantum networks3 and measurement-based quantum computation4,5. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons6,7,8, atoms9, ions10,11, electrons12 and superconducting circuits13. All the previous experiments were limited to the teleportation of one degree of freedom only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various degrees of freedom—internal and external—and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to teleport multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is necessary to describe a quantum particle fully and, therefore, to teleport it intact. Here we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum. We use photon pairs entangled in both degrees of freedom (that is, hyper-entangled) as the quantum channel for teleportation, and develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states by exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more degrees of freedom. We verify the teleportation for both spin–orbit product states and hybrid entangled states, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work is a step towards the teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an increase in our technical control of scalable quantum technologies.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    et al. Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classic and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993)

  2. 2.

    , , & Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998)

  3. 3.

    The quantum internet. Nature 453, 1023–1030 (2008)

  4. 4.

    & Demonstrating the viability of universal quantum computation using teleportation and single-qubit operations. Nature 402, 390–393 (1999)

  5. 5.

    , & A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics. Nature 409, 46–52 (2001)

  6. 6.

    et al. Experimental quantum teleportation. Nature 390, 575–579 (1997)

  7. 7.

    , , , & Long-distance teleportation of qubits at telecommunication wavelengths. Nature 421, 509–513 (2003)

  8. 8.

    , , , & Deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic quantum bits by a hybrid technique. Nature 500, 315–318 (2013)

  9. 9.

    et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation between distant atomic objects. Nature Phys. 9, 400–404 (2013)

  10. 10.

    et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms. Nature 429, 734–737 (2004)

  11. 11.

    et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits. Nature 429, 737–739 (2004)

  12. 12.

    et al. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits. Science 345, 532–535 (2014)

  13. 13.

    et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation with feed-forward in a solid state system. Nature 500, 319–322 (2013)

  14. 14.

    , & Hyperentangled Bell-state analysis. Phys. Rev. A 75, 060305(R) (2007)

  15. 15.

    et al. Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through Hong–Ou–Mandel coalescence. Nature Photon. 3, 720–723 (2009)

  16. 16.

    Experimental Bell-state analysis. Europhys. Lett. 25, 559–564 (1994)

  17. 17.

    et al. Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry. Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 777–838 (2012)

  18. 18.

    , & Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics. Phys. Rev. A 66, 052307 (2002)

  19. 19.

    et al. Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled photons. Phys. Rev. A 60, 773–776 (1999)

  20. 20.

    , , & Generation of hyper-entangled photon pairs. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 260501 (2005)

  21. 21.

    , , & Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons. Nature 412, 313–316 (2001)

  22. 22.

    , & Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference. Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2046 (1987)

  23. 23.

    , & Beating the channel capacity limit for linear photonic superdense coding. Nature Phys. 4, 282–286 (2008)

  24. 24.

    et al. Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009)

  25. 25.

    et al. Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables. Science 329, 662–665 (2010)

  26. 26.

    et al. Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta. Science 338, 640–643 (2012)

  27. 27.

    , & Reexamination of optimal quantum state estimation of pure states. Phys. Rev. A 72, 032325 (2005)

  28. 28.

    & Entanglement detection. Phys. Rep. 474, 1–75 (2009)

  29. 29.

    , , & “Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping. Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4287–4290 (1993)

  30. 30.

    et al. Complete experimental toolbox for alignment-free quantum communication. Nature Commun. 3, 961 (2012)

  31. 31.

    , , & Hyperentanglement-enabled direct characterization of quantum dynamics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060404 (2013)

  32. 32.

    et al. The polarizing Sagnac interferometer: a tool for light orbital angular momentum sorting and spin-orbit photon processing. Opt. Express 18, 27205–27216 (2010)

  33. 33.

    & (eds) The Angular Momentum of Light (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012)

  34. 34.

    et al. Precise quantum tomography of photon pairs with entangled orbital angular momentum. New J. Phys. 11, 103024 (2009)

  35. 35.

    , , , & Experimental realization of freely propagating teleported qubits. Nature 421, 721–725 (2003)

  36. 36.

    et al. Experimental quantum teleportation of a two-qubit composite system. Nature Phys. 2, 678–682 (2006)

  37. 37.

    et al. Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels. Nature 488, 185–188 (2012)

  38. 38.

    et al. Experimental quantum teleportation. Nature 390, 575–579 (1997)

  39. 39.

    et al. Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward. Nature 489, 269–273 (2012)

  40. 40.

    & Push-button photon entanglement. Nature Photon. 8, 174–176 (2014)

  41. 41.

    et al. High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward. Nature 445, 65–69 (2007)

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Fundamental Research Program (grant no. 2011CB921300).

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China

    • Xi-Lin Wang
    • , Xin-Dong Cai
    • , Zu-En Su
    • , Ming-Cheng Chen
    • , Dian Wu
    • , Li Li
    • , Nai-Le Liu
    • , Chao-Yang Lu
    •  & Jian-Wei Pan
  2. CAS Centre for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Centre in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China

    • Xi-Lin Wang
    • , Xin-Dong Cai
    • , Zu-En Su
    • , Ming-Cheng Chen
    • , Dian Wu
    • , Li Li
    • , Nai-Le Liu
    • , Chao-Yang Lu
    •  & Jian-Wei Pan

Authors

  1. Search for Xi-Lin Wang in:

  2. Search for Xin-Dong Cai in:

  3. Search for Zu-En Su in:

  4. Search for Ming-Cheng Chen in:

  5. Search for Dian Wu in:

  6. Search for Li Li in:

  7. Search for Nai-Le Liu in:

  8. Search for Chao-Yang Lu in:

  9. Search for Jian-Wei Pan in:

Contributions

C.-Y.L. and J.-W.P. had the idea for and designed the research; X.-L.W., X.-D.C., Z.-E.S., M.-C.C., D.W., L.L., N.-L.L. and C.-Y.L. performed the experiment; X.-L.W., M.-C.C., C.-Y.L. and J.-W.P. analysed the data; C.-Y.L. and J.-W.P. wrote the paper with input from all authors; and N.-L.L., C.-Y.L. and J.-W.P. supervised the whole project.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Chao-Yang Lu or Jian-Wei Pan.

Extended data

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14246

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.