Bacteria use CRISPR–Cas systems to develop immunity to viruses. Details of how these systems select viral DNA fragments and integrate them into bacterial DNA to create a memory of invaders have now been reported. See Articles p.193 & p.199
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Yosef, I., Qimron, U. How bacteria get spacers from invaders. Nature 519, 166–167 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14204