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Compositional engineering of perovskite materials for high-performance solar cells

Nature volume 517, pages 476480 (22 January 2015) | Download Citation


Of the many materials and methodologies aimed at producing low-cost, efficient photovoltaic cells, inorganic–organic lead halide perovskite materials1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17 appear particularly promising for next-generation solar devices owing to their high power conversion efficiency. The highest efficiencies reported for perovskite solar cells so far have been obtained mainly with methylammonium lead halide materials1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. Here we combine the promising—owing to its comparatively narrow bandgap—but relatively unstable formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) with methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) as the light-harvesting unit in a bilayer solar-cell architecture13. We investigated phase stability, morphology of the perovskite layer, hysteresis in current–voltage characteristics, and overall performance as a function of chemical composition. Our results show that incorporation of MAPbBr3 into FAPbI3 stabilizes the perovskite phase of FAPbI3 and improves the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell to more than 18 per cent under a standard illumination of 100 milliwatts per square centimetre. These findings further emphasize the versatility and performance potential of inorganic–organic lead halide perovskite materials for photovoltaic applications.

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This work was supported by the Global Research Laboratory (GRL) Program, the Global Frontier R&D Program of the Center for Multiscale Energy System, funded by the National Research Foundation in Korea, and by a grant from the Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT) 2020 Program for Future Technology in South Korea.

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    • Nam Joong Jeon
    •  & Jun Hong Noh

    These authors contributed equally to this work.


  1. Division of Advanced Materials, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 141 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-600, South Korea

    • Nam Joong Jeon
    • , Jun Hong Noh
    • , Woon Seok Yang
    • , Young Chan Kim
    • , Seungchan Ryu
    • , Jangwon Seo
    •  & Sang Il Seok
  2. Department of Energy Science, 2066 Seoburo, Jangan-gu, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, South Korea

    • Sang Il Seok


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N.J.J., J.H.N. and S.I.S. conceived the experiments and analysed and interpreted the data. N.J.J., Y.C.K., J.H.N. and J.S. performed the fabrication of devices, device performance measurements and characterization. N.J.J., W.S.Y. and S.R. carried out the synthesis of materials for perovskites, and S.I.S. prepared TiO2 particles and pastes. The manuscript was mainly written and revised by S.I.S. and J.H.N. The project was planned, directed and supervised by S.I.S. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Correspondence to Sang Il Seok.

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