Article | Published:

New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

Nature volume 518, pages 187196 (12 February 2015) | Download Citation

Abstract

Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10−8). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    et al. General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. N. Engl. J. Med. 359, 2105–2120 (2008)

  2. 2.

    , , , & Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in predicting risk of type 2 diabetes among men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81, 555–563 (2005)

  3. 3.

    Distribution of body fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 23, 591–598 (2008)

  4. 4.

    et al. Associations of hip and thigh circumferences independent of waist circumference with the incidence of type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77, 1192–1197 (2003)

  5. 5.

    et al. Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27,000 participants from 52 countries: a case-control study. Lancet 366, 1640–1649 (2005)

  6. 6.

    , & Influence of central and extremity circumferences on all-cause mortality in men and women. Obesity 16, 2690–2695 (2008)

  7. 7.

    et al. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution. Nature Genet. 42, 949–960 (2010)

  8. 8.

    et al. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits. PLoS Genet. 9, e1003500 (2013)

  9. 9.

    et al. Genome-wide association of pericardial fat identifies a unique locus for ectopic fat. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002705 (2012)

  10. 10.

    et al. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002695 (2012)

  11. 11.

    et al. The metabochip, a custom genotyping array for genetic studies of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric traits. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002793 (2012)

  12. 12.

    et al. Common variants in the GDF5-UQCC region are associated with variation in human height. Nature Genet. 40, 198–203 (2008)

  13. 13.

    et al. Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height. Nature 467, 832–838 (2010)

  14. 14.

    et al. Conditional and joint multiple-SNP analysis of GWAS summary statistics identifies additional variants influencing complex traits. Nature Genet. 44, 369–375 (2012)

  15. 15.

    et al. Common SNPs explain a large proportion of the heritability for human height. Nature Genet. 42, 565–569 (2010)

  16. 16.

    et al. A Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies. Available at ; accessed 31 January 2013

  17. 17.

    et al. Variants in ADCY5 and near CCNL1 are associated with fetal growth and birth weight. Nature Genet. 42, 430–435 (2010)

  18. 18.

    , & Characteristics of multi-organ lymphangiectasia resulting from temporal deletion of calcitonin receptor-like receptor in adult mice. PLoS ONE 7, e45261 (2012)

  19. 19.

    et al. Identifying relationships among genomic disease regions: predicting genes at pathogenic SNP associations and rare deletions. PLoS Genet. 5, e1000534 (2009)

  20. 20.

    , , , & Common inherited variation in mitochondrial genes is not enriched for associations with type 2 diabetes or related glycemic traits. PLoS Genet. 6, e1001058 (2010)

  21. 21.

    , & New insights into adipose tissue VEGF-A actions in the control of obesity and insulin resistance. Adipocyte 2, 109–112 (2013)

  22. 22.

    et al. PTEN mutations as a cause of constitutive insulin sensitivity and obesity. N. Engl. J. Med. 367, 1002–1011 (2012)

  23. 23.

    et al. Biological interpretation of genome-wide association studies using predicted gene functions. Nature Commun. 6, 5890 (2015)

  24. 24.

    ENCODE Project Consortium. An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome. Nature 489, 57–74 (2012)

  25. 25.

    et al. The NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Mapping Consortium. Nature Biotechnol. 28, 1045–1048 (2010)

  26. 26.

    The mechanism of white and brown adipocyte differentiation. Diabetes Metab. J. 37, 85–90 (2013)

  27. 27.

    et al. miR-17–5p and miR-106a are involved in the balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cell Res. 10, 313–324 (2013)

  28. 28.

    , , , & Essential role for miR-196a in brown adipogenesis of white fat progenitor cells. PLoS Biol. 10, e1001314 (2012)

  29. 29.

    Angiogenesis and vascular functions in modulation of obesity, adipose metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Cell Metab. 18, 478–489 (2013)

  30. 30.

    et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor B controls endothelial fatty acid uptake. Nature 464, 917–921 (2010)

  31. 31.

    et al. Semaphorin-PlexinD1 signaling limits angiogenic potential via the VEGF decoy receptor sFlt1. Dev. Cell 21, 301–314 (2011)

  32. 32.

    et al. Semaphorin3E-induced inflammation contributes to insulin resistance in dietary obesity. Cell Metab. 18, 491–504 (2013)

  33. 33.

    et al. Neuromedin U has a novel anorexigenic effect independent of the leptin signaling pathway. Nature Med. 10, 1067–1073 (2004)

  34. 34.

    et al. FGFR4 prevents hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance but underlies high-fat diet induced fatty liver. Diabetes 56, 2501–2510 (2007)

  35. 35.

    et al. Lack of the architectural factor HMGA1 causes insulin resistance and diabetes in humans and mice. Nature Med. 11, 765–773 (2005)

  36. 36.

    et al. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. Nature (this issue)

  37. 37.

    et al. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height. Nature Genet. 46, 1173–1186 (2014)

  38. 38.

    & Human dermal fibroblasts exhibit delayed adipogenic differentiation compared with mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 20, 1327–1336 (2011)

  39. 39.

    et al. Expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and T cell population markers in adipose tissue are associated with insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in humans. Mol. Immunol. 50, 142–149 (2012)

  40. 40.

    et al. Childhood body composition in relation to body mass index. Pediatrics 107, 344–350 (2001)

  41. 41.

    Sexual dimorphism of body composition. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 21, 415–430 (2007)

  42. 42.

    , , , & Increased visceral fat and decreased energy expenditure during the menopausal transition. Int. J. Obes. 32, 949–958 (2008)

  43. 43.

    et al. A genome-wide association study in 19,633 Japanese subjects identified LHX3-QSOX2 and IGF1 as adult height loci. Hum. Mol. Genet. 19, 2303–2312 (2010)

  44. 44.

    et al. Quality control and conduct of genome-wide association meta-analyses. Nature Protocols 9, 1192–1212 (2014)

  45. 45.

    & Genomic control for association studies. Biometrics 55, 997–1004 (1999)

  46. 46.

    et al. Evaluation of the metabochip genotyping array in African Americans and implications for fine mapping of GWAS-identified loci: the PAGE study. PLoS ONE 7, e35651 (2012)

  47. 47.

    , & METAL: fast and efficient meta-analysis of genomewide association scans. Bioinformatics 26, 2190–2191 (2010)

  48. 48.

    & Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J. R. Stat. Soc. Series B Stat. Methodol. 57, 289–300 (1995)

  49. 49.

    & Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat. Med. 21, 1539–1558 (2002)

  50. 50.

    , &. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Methodology for Genetic Studies of Twins and Families (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992)

  51. 51.

    Introduction to Quantitative Genetics 3rd edn (Oliver and Boyd, 1990)

  52. 52.

    & Multipoint quantitative-trait linkage analysis in general pedigrees. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62, 1198–1211 (1998)

  53. 53.

    MX: Statistical Modeling 4th edn (Department of Psychiatry, 1997)

  54. 54.

    , , & GCTA: a tool for genome-wide complex trait analysis. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 88, 76–82 (2011)

  55. 55.

    et al. A second generation human haplotype map of over 3.1 million SNPs. Nature 449, 851–861 (2007)

  56. 56.

    A Bayesian measure of the probability of false discovery in genetic epidemiology studies. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 208–227 (2007)

  57. 57.

    Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Bayesian refinement of association signals for 14 loci in 3 common diseases. Nature Genet. 44, 1294–1301 (2012)

  58. 58.

    et al. Large-scale association analysis provides insights into the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Nature Genet. 44, 981–990 (2012)

  59. 59.

    et al. Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease. Nature Genet. 45, 25–33 (2013)

  60. 60.

    et al. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk. Nature 478, 103–109 (2011)

  61. 61.

    Global Lipids Genetics Consortium. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels. Nature Genet. 45, 1274–1283 (2013)

  62. 62.

    et al. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways. Nature Genet. 44, 991–1005 (2012)

  63. 63.

    et al. A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance. Nature Genet. 44, 659–669 (2012)

  64. 64.

    et al. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge. Nature Genet. 42, 142–148 (2010)

  65. 65.

    et al. Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002607 (2012)

  66. 66.

    et al. Genome-wide association and functional follow-up reveals new loci for kidney function. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002584 (2012)

  67. 67.

    et al. CUBN is a gene locus for albuminuria. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 22, 555–570 (2011)

  68. 68.

    et al. Meta-analyses identify 13 loci associated with age at menopause and highlight DNA repair and immune pathways. Nature Genet. 44, 260–268 (2012)

  69. 69.

    et al. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Nature Genet. 42, 1077–1085 (2010)

  70. 70.

    et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture. Nature Genet. 44, 491–501 (2012)

  71. 71.

    et al. Genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for IgA nephropathy. Nature Genet. 43, 321–327 (2011)

  72. 72.

    et al. Genome-wide association study identifies a locus at 7p15.2 associated with endometriosis. Nature Genet. 43, 51–54 (2011)

  73. 73.

    et al. Potential etiologic and functional implications of genome-wide association loci for human diseases and traits. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 9362–9367 (2009)

  74. 74.

    et al. Genome-wide association study of hematological and biochemical traits in a Japanese population. Nature Genet. 42, 210–215 (2010)

  75. 75.

    et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohn's disease susceptibility loci. Nature Genet. 42, 1118–1125 (2010)

  76. 76.

    et al. Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis. Nature 476, 214–219 (2011)

  77. 77.

    , & A genome-wide meta-analysis identifies novel loci associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophr. Res. 124, 192–199 (2010)

  78. 78.

    et al. Common genetic variation and performance on standardized cognitive tests. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 18, 815–820 (2010)

  79. 79.

    et al. New gene functions in megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation. Nature 480, 201–208 (2011)

  80. 80.

    et al. A genome-wide study of common SNPs and CNVs in cognitive performance in the CANTAB. Hum. Mol. Genet. 18, 4650–4661 (2009)

  81. 81.

    et al. PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007)

  82. 82.

    The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium. A map of human genome variation from population-scale sequencing. Nature 467, 1061–1073 (2010)

  83. 83.

    The International HapMap Project. Nature 426, 789–796 (2003)

  84. 84.

    & Pvclust: an R package for assessing the uncertainty in hierarchical clustering. Bioinformatics 22, 1540–1542 (2006)

  85. 85.

    1000 Genomes Project Consortium. An integrated map of genetic variation from 1,092 human genomes. Nature 491, 56–65 (2012)

  86. 86.

    , , , & Identifying ChIP-seq enrichment using MACS. Nature Protocols 7, 1728–1740 (2012)

  87. 87.

    et al. Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium. Nature Genet. 25, 25–29 (2000)

  88. 88.

    & PANTHER pathway: an ontology-based pathway database coupled with data analysis tools. Methods Mol. Biol. 563, 123–140 (2009)

  89. 89.

    , , , & Biological pathway analysis by ArrayUnlock and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. BMC Proc. 3, S6 (2009)

  90. 90.

    & KEGG: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 28, 27–30 (2000)

  91. 91.

    et al. Gene expression analysis identified global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer. Nature Genet. 47, 115–125 (2015)

  92. 92.

    et al. A human phenome-interactome network of protein complexes implicated in genetic disorders. Nature Biotechnol. 25, 309–316 (2007)

  93. 93.

    et al. Mouse genome informatics in a new age of biological inquiry. IEEE Int. Symposium Bio-Informatics Biomedical Engineering 29–32 (2000)

  94. 94.

    et al. Reactome: a database of reactions, pathways and biological processes. Nucleic Acids Res. 39, D691–D697 (2011)

  95. 95.

    , , , & KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets. Nucleic Acids Res. 40, D109–D114 (2012)

  96. 96.

    et al. A travel guide to Cytoscape plugins. Nature Methods 9, 1069–1076 (2012)

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank the more than 224,000 volunteers who participated in this study. Detailed acknowledgment of funding sources is provided in the Supplementary Note.

Author information

Author notes

    • Dmitry Shungin
    • , Thomas W. Winkler
    • , Damien C. Croteau-Chonka
    • , Teresa Ferreira
    • , Adam E. Locke
    •  & Reedik Mägi

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

    • Iris M. Heid
    • , Ruth J. F. Loos
    • , L. Adrienne Cupples
    • , Andrew P. Morris
    • , Cecilia M. Lindgren
    •  & Karen L Mohlke

    These authors jointly supervised this work.

Affiliations

  1. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Medicine, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.

    • Dmitry Shungin
    •  & Paul W. Franks
  2. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic & Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Skåne University Hosptial, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden.

    • Dmitry Shungin
    • , Frida Renstrom
    •  & Paul W. Franks
  3. Department of Odontology, Umeå University, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden.

    • Dmitry Shungin
    •  & Ingegerd Johansson
  4. Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany.

    • Thomas W. Winkler
    • , Matthias Olden
    •  & Iris M. Heid
  5. Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Damien C. Croteau-Chonka
    • , Martin L. Buchkovich
    • , Tamara S. Roman
    •  & Karen L Mohlke
  6. Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Damien C. Croteau-Chonka
    • , David J. Hunter
    •  & Lu Qi
  7. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.

    • Teresa Ferreira
    • , Reedik Mägi
    • , Alexander W. Drong
    • , Joshua C. Randall
    • , Anuj Goel
    • , Inga Prokopenko
    • , Thorhildur Juliusdottir
    • , Anubha Mahajan
    • , Nigel W. Rayner
    • , Neil R. Robertson
    • , Åsa K. Hedman
    • , Sarah Keildson
    • , John R. B. Perry
    • , Krina T. Zondervan
    • , Martin Farrall
    • , Hugh Watkins
    • , Mark I. McCarthy
    • , Erik Ingelsson
    • , Andrew P. Morris
    •  & Cecilia M. Lindgren
  8. Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • Adam E. Locke
    • , Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham
    • , Anne U. Jackson
    • , Heather M. Stringham
    • , Goncalo R. Abecasis
    •  & Michael Boehnke
  9. Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia.

    • Reedik Mägi
    • , Krista Fischer
    • , Tonu Esko
    • , Toomas Haller
    • , Evelin Mihailov
    • , Lili Milani
    • , Andres Metspalu
    • , Eva Reinmaa
    • , Mari Nelis
    • , Markus Perola
    •  & Andrew P. Morris
  10. Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17176, Sweden.

    • Rona J. Strawbridge
    • , Bengt Sennblad
    • , Per Eriksson
    • , Lasse Folkersen
    •  & Anders Hamsten
  11. Divisions of Endocrinology and Genetics and Center for Basic and Translational Obesity Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Tune H. Pers
    • , Tonu Esko
    • , Sailaja Vedantam
    • , Cameron D. Palmer
    • , Rany M. Salem
    •  & Joel N. Hirschhorn
  12. Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.

    • Tune H. Pers
    • , Tonu Esko
    • , Sailaja Vedantam
    • , Cameron D. Palmer
    • , Karol Estrada
    • , Rany M. Salem
    • , Joel N. Hirschhorn
    •  & Cecilia M. Lindgren
  13. Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Tune H. Pers
    • , Tonu Esko
    • , Rany M. Salem
    •  & Joel N. Hirschhorn
  14. Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby 2800, Denmark.

    • Tune H. Pers
  15. Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Anne E. Justice
    • , Keri L. Monda
    •  & Kari E. North
  16. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Tsegaselassie Workalemahu
    •  & David J. Hunter
  17. Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    • Joseph M. W. Wu
    • , Ching-Ti Liu
    •  & L. Adrienne Cupples
  18. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Framingham Heart Study, Framingham Massachusetts 01702, USA.

    • Nancy L. Heard-Costa
    • , Joanne M. Murabito
    • , Caroline S. Fox
    •  & L. Adrienne Cupples
  19. Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    • Nancy L. Heard-Costa
  20. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17177, Sweden.

    • Ci Song
    • , Tove Fall
    • , Patrik K. E. Magnusson
    •  & Nancy L. Pedersen
  21. Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden.

    • Ci Song
    • , Stefan Gustafsson
    • , Tove Fall
    • , Johan Ärnlöv
    • , Ann-Christine Syvänen
    • , Åsa K. Hedman
    •  & Erik Ingelsson
  22. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden.

    • Ci Song
    • , Stefan Gustafsson
    • , Tove Fall
    • , Johan Ärnlöv
    • , Åsa K. Hedman
    •  & Erik Ingelsson
  23. MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK.

    • Felix R. Day
    • , Jian’an Luan
    • , Jing Hua Zhao
    • , Robert A. Scott
    • , Nita G. Forouhi
    • , Claudia Langenberg
    • , Ken K. Ong
    • , Nicholas J. Wareham
    •  & Ruth J. F. Loos
  24. Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne 1010, Switzerland.

    • Zoltán Kutalik
  25. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne 1015, Switzerland.

    • Zoltán Kutalik
    •  & Toby Johnson
  26. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland.

    • Zoltán Kutalik
    •  & Toby Johnson
  27. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.

    • Joshua C. Randall
    • , Nigel W. Rayner
    • , Kathleen Stirrups
    • , Panos Deloukas
    •  & Inês Barroso
  28. Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University Hospital Essen, Essen, 45147 Germany.

    • André Scherag
    • , Sonali Pechlivanis
    •  & Karl-Heinz Jöckel
  29. Clinical Epidemiology, Integrated Research and Treatment Center, Center for Sepsis Control and Care (CSCC), Jena University Hospital, Jena 07743, Germany.

    • André Scherag
  30. Genetics of Complex Traits, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK.

    • Andrew R. Wood
    • , Dorota Pasko
    • , John R. B. Perry
    •  & Timothy M. Frayling
  31. Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • Jin Chen
    •  & Cristen J. Willer
  32. Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Rudolf Fehrmann
    • , Juha Karjalainen
    • , Morris A. Swertz
    • , Harm-Jan Westra
    • , Pim van der Harst
    •  & Lude Franke
  33. Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, and Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • Bratati Kahali
    •  & Elizabeth K. Speliotes
  34. Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • Ellen M. Schmidt
    •  & Cristen J. Willer
  35. HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama 35806, USA.

    • Devin Absher
    •  & Lindsay L. Waite
  36. Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Najaf Amin
    • , Ayse Demirkan
    • , Aaron Isaacs
    • , Ben A. Oostra
    •  & Cornelia M. van Duijn
  37. Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6008, Australia.

    • Denise Anderson
  38. Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands.

    • Marian Beekman
    • , Stefan Böhringer
    • , Joris Deelen
    • , Quinta Helmer
    • , Simon P. Mooijaart
    • , Lisette Stolk
    •  & P. Eline Slagboom
  39. Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Marian Beekman
    • , Joris Deelen
    •  & P. Eline Slagboom
  40. Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham
  41. Department of Statistics & Biostatistics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

    • Steven Buyske
  42. Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

    • Steven Buyske
    •  & Tara C. Matise
  43. Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZC Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Ayse Demirkan
  44. Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    • Georg B. Ehret
    •  & Aravinda Chakravarti
  45. Cardiology, Department of Specialties of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 1211, Switzerland.

    • Georg B. Ehret
    •  & François Mach
  46. Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    • Mary F. Feitosa
    • , E. Warwick Daw
    • , Mary K. Wojczynski
    • , Qunyuan Zhang
    • , Aldi T. Kraja
    • , D. C. Rao
    •  & Ingrid B. Borecki
  47. Division of Cardiovacular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

    • Anuj Goel
    • , Martin Farrall
    •  & Hugh Watkins
  48. University Institute for Social and Preventative Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), University of Lausanne, Lausanne 1005, Switzerland.

    • Toby Johnson
  49. Vth Department of Medicine (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Medical Faculty of Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, D-68187 Mannheim, Germany.

    • Marcus E. Kleber
    •  & Winfried März
  50. Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.

    • Marcus E. Kleber
    •  & Wolfgang Koenig
  51. National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Kati Kristiansson
    • , Niina Eklund
    • , Leena Kinnunen
    • , Jaana Lindström
    • , Johan G. Eriksson
    • , Markku Heliövaara
    • , Pekka Jousilahti
    • , Antti M. Jula
    • , Jaakko Kaprio
    • , Kari Kuulasmaa
    • , Satu Männistö
    • , Veikko Salomaa
    • , Markus Perola
    •  & Jaakko Tuomilehto
  52. Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King’s College London, London SE1 7EH, UK.

    • Massimo Mangino
    • , Cristina Menni
    • , Alireza Moayyeri
    • , John R. B. Perry
    •  & Tim D. Spector
  53. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Irene Mateo Leach
    • , Hans L. Hillege
    • , Niek Verweij
    •  & Pim van der Harst
  54. Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Carolina Medina-Gomez
    • , Marjolein J. Peters
    • , Oscar H. Franco
    • , Albert Hofman
    • , Fernando Rivadeneira
    • , André G. Uitterlinden
    • , Cornelia M. van Duijn
    •  & M. Carola Zillikens
  55. Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Carolina Medina-Gomez
    • , Oscar H. Franco
    • , Albert Hofman
    • , Jacqueline C. Witteman
    • , Fernando Rivadeneira
    • , André G. Uitterlinden
    •  & Cornelia M. van Duijn
  56. Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3015GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Carolina Medina-Gomez
    • , Marjolein J. Peters
    • , Karol Estrada
    • , Lisette Stolk
    • , Fernando Rivadeneira
    • , André G. Uitterlinden
    •  & M. Carola Zillikens
  57. Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK.

    • Inga Prokopenko
    • , Amy Barrett
    • , Amanda J. Bennett
    • , Christopher J. Groves
    • , Nigel W. Rayner
    • , Neil R. Robertson
    • , Fredrik Karpe
    •  & Mark I. McCarthy
  58. Department of Genomics of Common Disease, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK.

    • Inga Prokopenko
    •  & Philippe Froguel
  59. University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland.

    • Alena Stančáková
  60. Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    • Yun Ju Sung
    • , D. C. Rao
    •  & Treva K. Rice
  61. Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21225, USA.

    • Toshiko Tanaka
    •  & Luigi Ferrucci
  62. Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Alexander Teumer
    • , Georg Homuth
    •  & Uwe Völker
  63. Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands.

    • Jana V. Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
  64. CNRS UMR 8199, F-59019 Lille, France.

    • Loïc Yengo
    • , Elodie Eury
    • , Stéphane Lobbens
    • , Stéphane Cauchi
    •  & Philippe Froguel
  65. European Genomic Institute for Diabetes, F-59000 Lille, France.

    • Loïc Yengo
    • , Elodie Eury
    • , Stéphane Lobbens
    • , Stéphane Cauchi
    •  & Philippe Froguel
  66. Université de Lille 2, F-59000 Lille, France.

    • Loïc Yengo
    • , Elodie Eury
    • , Stéphane Lobbens
    • , Stéphane Cauchi
    •  & Philippe Froguel
  67. Ealing Hospital NHS Trust, Middlesex UB1 3HW, UK.

    • Weihua Zhang
    • , Jagvir Grewal
    • , Jaspal S. Kooner
    •  & John C. Chambers
  68. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK.

    • Weihua Zhang
    • , Jagvir Grewal
    • , Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
    •  & John C. Chambers
  69. Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    • Eva Albrecht
    • , Harald Grallert
    • , Martina Müller-Nurasyid
    • , Janina S. Ried
    • , Christian Gieger
    • , Konstantin Strauch
    •  & Iris M. Heid
  70. School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, SE-791 88 Falun, Sweden.

    • Johan Ärnlöv
  71. PathWest Laboratory Medicine of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

    • Gillian M. Arscott
    • , John Beilby
    •  & Jennie Hui
  72. Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (ASF), 50125 Florence, Italy.

    • Stefania Bandinelli
  73. Department of Genetics, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78227, USA.

    • Claire Bellis
    •  & John Blangero
  74. Genomics Research Centre, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia.

    • Claire Bellis
  75. Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden.

    • Christian Berne
  76. Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) Adiposity Diseases, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.

    • Matthias Blüher
    • , Yvonne Böttcher
    • , Peter Kovacs
    • , Anke Tönjes
    •  & Michael Stumvoll
  77. Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.

    • Matthias Blüher
    • , Peter Kovacs
    • , Anke Tönjes
    •  & Michael Stumvoll
  78. Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Stefan Böhringer
    •  & Quinta Helmer
  79. Inserm UMR991, Department of Endocrinology, University of Rennes, F-35000 Rennes, France.

    • Fabrice Bonnet
  80. LifeLines Cohort Study, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Marcel Bruinenberg
    •  & Salome Scholtens
  81. USC-Office of Population Studies Foundation, Inc., University of San Carlos, Cebu City 6000, Philippines.

    • Delia B. Carba
    •  & Nanette R. Lee
  82. Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.

    • Ida H. Caspersen
    •  & Berit Johansen
  83. Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK.

    • Robert Clarke
  84. Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey, California 90292, USA.

    • Ewa Deelman
  85. Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK.

    • Alex S. F. Doney
    • , Andrew D. Morris
    •  & Colin N. A. Palmer
  86. Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Niina Eklund
    • , Jaakko Kaprio
    • , Markus Perola
    •  & Leif C. Groop
  87. Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    • Michael R. Erdos
    • , Narisu Narisu
    • , Amy J. Swift
    • , Peter S. Chines
    •  & Francis S. Collins
  88. Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    • Karol Estrada
  89. Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Nele Friedrich
  90. Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    • Melissa E. Garcia
    •  & Tamara B. Harris
  91. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden.

    • Vilmantas Giedraitis
  92. Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm 17177, Sweden.

    • Bruna Gigante
    • , Karin Leander
    •  & Ulf de Faire
  93. Kaiser Permanente, Division of Research, Oakland, California 94612, USA.

    • Alan S. Go
  94. Service of Therapeutic Education for Diabetes, Obesity and Chronic Diseases, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva CH-1211, Switzerland.

    • Alain Golay
  95. Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    • Harald Grallert
    • , Thomas Illig
    •  & Annette Peters
  96. German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    • Harald Grallert
    •  & Barbara Thorand
  97. Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany.

    • Jürgen Gräßler
    • , Peter E. H. Schwarz
    •  & Stefan R. Bornstein
  98. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå 90187, Sweden.

    • Goran Hallmans
  99. Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Catharina A. Hartman
    •  & Albertine J. Oldehinkel
  100. Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine, FI-70100 Kuopio, Finland.

    • Maija Hassinen
    • , Timo A. Lakka
    •  & Rainer Rauramaa
  101. MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK.

    • Caroline Hayward
  102. Hjelt Institute Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Kauko Heikkilä
    •  & Jaakko Kaprio
  103. Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.

    • Karl-Heinz Herzig
  104. Medical Research Center Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.

    • Karl-Heinz Herzig
  105. Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.

    • Karl-Heinz Herzig
    •  & Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
  106. Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University Amsterdam, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Quinta Helmer
  107. Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Hans L. Hillege
    • , Ilja M. Nolte
    • , Judith M. Vonk
    • , Ronald P. Stolk
    •  & Harold Snieder
  108. Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7489, Norway.

    • Oddgeir Holmen
    •  & Kristian Hveem
  109. Cardiovascular Genetics Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108, USA.

    • Steven C. Hunt
  110. Center for Medical Sytems Biology, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Aaron Isaacs
    • , Ben A. Oostra
    •  & Cornelia M. van Duijn
  111. Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Till Ittermann
    •  & Wolfgang Hoffmann
  112. Department of Pulmonary Physiology and Sleep Medicine, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

    • Alan L. James
  113. School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, Australia.

    • Alan L. James
  114. Department of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece.

    • Ioanna-Panagiota Kalafati
    •  & George Dedoussis
  115. Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.

    • Wolfgang Kratzer
    •  & Thomas Seufferlein
  116. Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medical Genetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

    • Claudia Lamina
  117. Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    • Peter Lichtner
  118. Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185, Sweden.

    • Lars Lind
    •  & Johan Sundström
  119. Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 413 45, Sweden.

    • Mattias Lorentzon
    •  & Claes Ohlsson
  120. School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK.

    • Wendy L. McArdle
    •  & Josine L. Min
  121. Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.

    • Sigrun Merger
    •  & Simone Claudi-Boehm
  122. Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia.

    • Evelin Mihailov
    •  & Andres Metspalu
  123. Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, University College London, London NW1 2DA, UK

    • Alireza Moayyeri
  124. The Center for Observational Research, Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA.

    • Keri L. Monda
  125. Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Simon P. Mooijaart
  126. Department of Genomics, Life & Brain Center, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany.

    • Thomas W. Mühleisen
  127. Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany.

    • Thomas W. Mühleisen
  128. Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica (IRGB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari, Sardinia 09042, Italy.

    • Antonella Mulas
    •  & Serena Sanna
  129. Center for Evidence-based Healthcare, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany.

    • Gabriele Müller
  130. Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, D-81377 Munich, Germany.

    • Martina Müller-Nurasyid
  131. Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Genetic Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, D-81377 Munich, Germany.

    • Martina Müller-Nurasyid
    •  & Konstantin Strauch
  132. Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen (DZHK) (German Research Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Munich Heart Alliance, D-80636 Munich, Germany.

    • Martina Müller-Nurasyid
    •  & Annette Peters
  133. Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    • Ramaiah Nagaraja
    •  & David Schlessinger
  134. Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    • Michael A. Nalls
  135. Hypertension and Related Diseases Centre - AOU, University of Sassari Medical School, Sassari 07100, Italy.

    • Nicola Glorioso
    •  & Chiara Troffa
  136. Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    • Lynda M. Rose
    • , Paul M. Ridker
    •  & Daniel I. Chasman
  137. Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria.

    • Hubert Scharnagl
    •  & Winfried März
  138. Science for Life Laboratory, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 65, Sweden.

    • Bengt Sennblad
  139. Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA.

    • Colleen M. Sitlani
  140. Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur 201, Iceland.

    • Albert Vernon Smith
    •  & Vilmundur Gudnason
  141. University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland.

    • Albert Vernon Smith
    •  & Vilmundur Gudnason
  142. William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK.

    • Kathleen Stirrups
    • , Stavroula Kanoni
    •  & Panos Deloukas
  143. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75144, Sweden.

    • Ann-Christine Syvänen
  144. Department of Public Health Sciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University of Chicago, Maywood, Illinois 61053, USA.

    • Bamidele O. Tayo
    •  & Richard S. Cooper
  145. Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    • Barbara Thorand
    •  & Annette Peters
  146. deCODE Genetics, Amgen Inc., Reykjavik 101, Iceland.

    • Gudmar Thorleifsson
    • , Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir
    • , Unnur Thorsteinsdottir
    •  & Kari Stefansson
  147. Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz 8036, Austria.

    • Andreas Tomaschitz
  148. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre, 3000 CB Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Floor V. A. van Oort
  149. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.

    • Roman Wennauer
  150. Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway.

    • Tom Wilsgaard
    •  & Inger Njølstad
  151. MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at University College London, London WC1B 5JU, UK.

    • Andrew Wong
    • , Ken K. Ong
    •  & Diana Kuh
  152. Diabetes Complications Research Centre, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.

    • Eoin P. Brennan
  153. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea.

    • Murim Choi
  154. Cardiothoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 17176, Sweden.

    • Anders Franco-Cereceda
    •  & Christian Olsson
  155. Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 10032, USA.

    • Ali G. Gharavi
    •  & Krzysztof Kiryluk
  156. Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    • Marie-France Hivert
  157. Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    • Marie-France Hivert
  158. State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Hematology, Rui Jin Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.

    • Jinyan Huang
  159. Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Jinyan Huang
    • , Liming Liang
    • , Baoshan Ma
    •  & David J. Hunter
  160. NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, OUH Trust, Oxford OX3 7LE, UK.

    • Fredrik Karpe
  161. Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Liming Liang
  162. Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

    • Richard P. Lifton
  163. College of Information Science and Technology, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026, China.

    • Baoshan Ma
  164. Nephrology Research, Centre for Public Health, Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast, County Down BT9 7AB, UK.

    • Amy J. McKnight
  165. University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa K1Y 4W7, Canada.

    • Ruth McPherson
  166. National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LY, UK.

    • Miriam F. Moffatt
    •  & Jaspal S. Kooner
  167. QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia.

    • Grant W. Montgomery
    •  & Dale R. Nyholt
  168. Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    • Joanne M. Murabito
  169. Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3TG, UK.

    • George Nicholson
  170. MRC Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell OX11 0QG, UK.

    • George Nicholson
  171. Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4059, Australia.

    • Dale R. Nyholt
  172. Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University School of Science, FI-00076 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Niina Sandholm
  173. Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Niina Sandholm
  174. Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Niina Sandholm
  175. Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10580, USA.

    • Eric E. Schadt
  176. Computer Science Department, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Atizapán de Zaragoza, 52926, Mexico.

    • Edgar E. Vallejo
  177. Nuffield Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.

    • Krina T. Zondervan
  178. Institut Pasteur de Lille; INSERM, U744; Université de Lille 2; F-59000 Lille, France.

    • Philippe Amouyel
  179. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, EA3430, University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Medicine, Strasbourg, France.

    • Dominique Arveiler
  180. Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Stephan J. L. Bakker
    •  & Ron T. Gansevoort
  181. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

    • John Beilby
    •  & Jennie Hui
  182. Cedars-Sinai Diabetes and Obesity Research Institute, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA.

    • Richard N. Bergman
  183. Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK.

    • Morris J. Brown
  184. Service of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne 1005, Switzerland.

    • Michel Burnier
  185. Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK.

    • Harry Campbell
    • , Igor Rudan
    •  & James F. Wilson
  186. Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA.

    • Dana C. Crawford
  187. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

    • Dana C. Crawford
  188. Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK.

    • John Danesh
    •  & Danish Saleheen
  189. Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Eco J. C. de Geus
  190. Institute for Research in Extramural Medicine, Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University, 1081BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Eco J. C. de Geus
    •  & Brenda W. Penninx
  191. Department of Internal Medicine B, University Medicine Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Marcus Dörr
  192. DZHK (Deutsches Zentrum für Herz-Kreislaufforschung – German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Marcus Dörr
    • , Wolfgang Hoffmann
    •  & Uwe Völker
  193. Clinic of Cardiology, West-German Heart Centre, University Hospital Essen, 45122 Essen, Germany.

    • Raimund Erbel
    •  & Stefan Möhlenkamp
  194. Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Johan G. Eriksson
  195. Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki FI-00290, Finland.

    • Johan G. Eriksson
  196. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa 56100, Italy.

    • Ele Ferrannini
  197. National Research Council Institute of Clinical Physiology, University of Pisa, Pisa 56124, Italy.

    • Ele Ferrannini
  198. Department of Cardiology, Toulouse University School of Medicine, Rangueil Hospital, 31400 Toulouse, France.

    • Jean Ferrières
  199. UWI Solutions for Developing Countries, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica.

    • Terrence Forrester
    •  & Colin A. McKenzie
  200. Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA.

    • Christopher A. Haiman
  201. Institute of Biomedical & Clinical Science, University of Exeter, Barrack Road, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK.

    • Andrew T. Hattersley
  202. Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen, Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano 39100, Italy (affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, D-23562 Lübeck, Germany).

    • Andrew A. Hicks
    •  & Peter P. Pramstaller
  203. Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

    • Aroon D. Hingorani
  204. Centre for Cardiovascular Genetics, Institute Cardiovascular Sciences, University College London, London WC1E 6JJ, UK.

    • Steve E. Humphries
  205. Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia.

    • Elina Hyppönen
  206. School of Population Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia.

    • Elina Hyppönen
  207. South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide 5000, South Australia, Australia.

    • Elina Hyppönen
  208. Population, Policy, and Practice, University College London Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK.

    • Elina Hyppönen
    •  & Chris Power
  209. Hannover Unified Biobank, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, D-30625 Hannover, Germany.

    • Thomas Illig
  210. National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-90101 Oulu, Finland.

    • Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
  211. MRC Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK.

    • Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
  212. Unit of Primary Care, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90220 Oulu, Finland.

    • Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
  213. Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.

    • Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
  214. UK Clinical Research Collaboration Centre of Excellence for Public Health (NI), Queens University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, UK.

    • Frank Kee
  215. Institute of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.

    • Sirkka M. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi
  216. Unit of Primary Health Care/General Practice, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90220 Oulu, Finland.

    • Sirkka M. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi
  217. Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, UK.

    • Jaspal S. Kooner
    •  & John C. Chambers
  218. Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.

    • Charles Kooperberg
    •  & Ulrike Peters
  219. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

    • Meena Kumari
    • , Claudia Langenberg
    •  & Mika Kivimaki
  220. Department of Biological and Social Epidemiology, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, UK.

    • Meena Kumari
  221. Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland.

    • Johanna Kuusisto
    •  & Markku Laakso
  222. Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

    • Timo A. Lakka
  223. Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland.

    • Timo A. Lakka
    •  & Rainer Rauramaa
  224. Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, USA.

    • Loic Le Marchand
  225. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and School of Medicine University of Tampere, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland.

    • Terho Lehtimäki
  226. Steno Diabetes Center A/S, Gentofte DK-2820, Denmark.

    • Valeriya Lyssenko
  227. Lund University Diabetes Centre and Department of Clinical Science, Diabetes & Endocrinology Unit, Lund University, Malmö 221 00, Sweden.

    • Valeriya Lyssenko
    •  & Leif C. Groop
  228. Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

    • André Marette
  229. Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

    • André Marette
    • , Marie-Claude Vohl
    •  & Louis Pérusse
  230. Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    • Barbara McKnight
  231. Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

    • Arthur W. Musk
  232. Epidemiology and Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1E2, Canada.

    • Lyle J. Palmer
  233. Genetic Epidemiology & Biostatistics Platform, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A3, Canada.

    • Lyle J. Palmer
  234. Department of Psychiatry, Neuroscience Campus, VU University Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Brenda W. Penninx
  235. Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano 39100, Italy.

    • Peter P. Pramstaller
  236. Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, FI-20521 Turku, Finland.

    • Olli T. Raitakari
  237. Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, FI-20521 Turku, Finland.

    • Olli T. Raitakari
  238. Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA.

    • Tuomo Rankinen
    • , Mark A. Sarzynski
    •  & Claude Bouchard
  239. Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    • D. C. Rao
    •  & Treva K. Rice
  240. Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Paul M. Ridker
    •  & Daniel I. Chasman
  241. Center for Systems Genomics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.

    • Marylyn D. Ritchie
  242. Croatian Centre for Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia.

    • Igor Rudan
  243. Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK.

    • Nilesh J. Samani
  244. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK.

    • Nilesh J. Samani
  245. South Carelia Central Hospital, 53130 Lappeenranta, Finland.

    • Jouko Saramies
  246. Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 01307 Dresden, Germany.

    • Peter E. H. Schwarz
  247. Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

    • Alan R. Shuldiner
    •  & Jeffrey R. O’Connell
  248. Program for Personalized and Genomic Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

    • Alan R. Shuldiner
    •  & Jeffrey R. O’Connell
  249. Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

    • Alan R. Shuldiner
  250. Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, 6229 HA Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    • Jan A. Staessen
  251. Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

    • Jan A. Staessen
  252. Department of Kinesiology, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

    • Angelo Tremblay
    •  & Louis Pérusse
  253. Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università di Milano & Centro Cardiologico Monzino, Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Milan 20133, Italy.

    • Elena Tremoli
  254. Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

    • Marie-Claude Vohl
  255. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, 1011, Switzerland.

    • Peter Vollenweider
  256. Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Linda S. Adair
  257. Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, 1010 Lausanne, Switzerland.

    • Murielle Bochud
  258. Ministry of Health, Victoria, Republic of Seychelles.

    • Murielle Bochud
  259. Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Imperial College London and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637553 Singapore, Singapore.

    • Bernhard O. Boehm
  260. Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm University Medical Centre, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.

    • Bernhard O. Boehm
  261. Department of Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK.

    • Mark J. Caulfield
    •  & Patricia B. Munroe
  262. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, HELIOS-Hospital Stralsund, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Hans-Jörgen Grabe
  263. German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Rostock, Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Hans-Jörgen Grabe
  264. School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

    • Jennie Hui
  265. Center for Human Genetics, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA.

    • Yongmei Liu
  266. Synlab Academy, Synlab Services GmbH, 68163 Mannheim, Germany.

    • Winfried März
  267. Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Ben A. Oostra
  268. Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA.

    • Thomas Quertermous
    •  & Themistocles L. Assimes
  269. Finnish Diabetes Association, Kirjoniementie 15, FI-33680 Tampere, Finland.

    • Timo E. Saaristo
  270. Pirkanmaa Hospital District, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland.

    • Timo E. Saaristo
  271. Center for Non-Communicable Diseases, Karatchi, Pakistan.

    • Danish Saleheen
  272. Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 USA.

    • Danish Saleheen
  273. Helsinki University Central Hospital Heart and Lung Center, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Juha Sinisalo
  274. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik 101, Iceland.

    • Unnur Thorsteinsdottir
    •  & Kari Stefansson
  275. Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Universario LaPaz (IdiPAZ), 28046 Madrid, Spain.

    • Jaakko Tuomilehto
  276. Diabetes Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    • Jaakko Tuomilehto
  277. Centre for Vascular Prevention, Danube-University Krems, 3500 Krems, Austria.

    • Jaakko Tuomilehto
  278. Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

    • Matti Uusitupa
  279. Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland.

    • Matti Uusitupa
  280. Durrer Center for Cardiogenetic Research, Interuniversity Cardiology Institute Netherlands-Netherlands Heart Institute, 3501 DG Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    • Pim van der Harst
  281. EPIMED Research Center, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese I-21100, Italy.

    • Giovanni Veronesi
  282. Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK.

    • Mark Walker
  283. Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, D-85764 Munich, Germany.

    • H-Erich Wichmann
  284. Klinikum Grosshadern, D-81377 Munich, Germany.

    • H-Erich Wichmann
  285. Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    • H-Erich Wichmann
  286. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    • Sonja I. Berndt
  287. Princess Al-Jawhara Al-Brahim Centre of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders (PACER-HD), King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    • Panos Deloukas
  288. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Belfer 1306, New York 10461, USA.

    • Robert C. Kaplan
  289. Division of Population Health Sciences & Education, St George's, University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK.

    • David P. Strachan
  290. Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • Cristen J. Willer
  291. Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia.

    • Peter M. Visscher
    •  & Jian Yang
  292. The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The Translation Research Institute, Brisbane 4012, Australia.

    • Peter M. Visscher
    •  & Jian Yang
  293. Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK.

    • Mark I. McCarthy
  294. Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Kari E. North
  295. University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 OQQ, UK.

    • Inês Barroso
  296. NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 OQQ, UK.

    • Inês Barroso
  297. The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA.

    • Ruth J. F. Loos
  298. The Genetics of Obesity and Related Metabolic Traits Program, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA.

    • Ruth J. F. Loos
  299. The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, USA.

    • Ruth J. F. Loos
  300. Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK.

    • Andrew P. Morris

Consortia

  1. The ADIPOGen Consortium

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  2. The CARDIOGRAMplusC4D Consortium

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  3. The CKDGen Consortium

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  4. The GEFOS Consortium

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  5. The GENIE Consortium

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  6. The GLGC

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  7. The ICBP

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  8. The International Endogene Consortium

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  9. The LifeLines Cohort Study

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  10. The MAGIC Investigators

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  11. The MuTHER Consortium

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  12. The PAGE Consortium

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

  13. The ReproGen Consortium

    A list of authors and affiliations appears in the Supplementary Information.

Authors

  1. Search for Dmitry Shungin in:

  2. Search for Thomas W. Winkler in:

  3. Search for Damien C. Croteau-Chonka in:

  4. Search for Teresa Ferreira in:

  5. Search for Adam E. Locke in:

  6. Search for Reedik Mägi in:

  7. Search for Rona J. Strawbridge in:

  8. Search for Tune H. Pers in:

  9. Search for Krista Fischer in:

  10. Search for Anne E. Justice in:

  11. Search for Tsegaselassie Workalemahu in:

  12. Search for Joseph M. W. Wu in:

  13. Search for Martin L. Buchkovich in:

  14. Search for Nancy L. Heard-Costa in:

  15. Search for Tamara S. Roman in:

  16. Search for Alexander W. Drong in:

  17. Search for Ci Song in:

  18. Search for Stefan Gustafsson in:

  19. Search for Felix R. Day in:

  20. Search for Tonu Esko in:

  21. Search for Tove Fall in:

  22. Search for Zoltán Kutalik in:

  23. Search for Jian’an Luan in:

  24. Search for Joshua C. Randall in:

  25. Search for André Scherag in:

  26. Search for Sailaja Vedantam in:

  27. Search for Andrew R. Wood in:

  28. Search for Jin Chen in:

  29. Search for Rudolf Fehrmann in:

  30. Search for Juha Karjalainen in:

  31. Search for Bratati Kahali in:

  32. Search for Ching-Ti Liu in:

  33. Search for Ellen M. Schmidt in:

  34. Search for Devin Absher in:

  35. Search for Najaf Amin in:

  36. Search for Denise Anderson in:

  37. Search for Marian Beekman in:

  38. Search for Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham in:

  39. Search for Steven Buyske in:

  40. Search for Ayse Demirkan in:

  41. Search for Georg B. Ehret in:

  42. Search for Mary F. Feitosa in:

  43. Search for Anuj Goel in:

  44. Search for Anne U. Jackson in:

  45. Search for Toby Johnson in:

  46. Search for Marcus E. Kleber in:

  47. Search for Kati Kristiansson in:

  48. Search for Massimo Mangino in:

  49. Search for Irene Mateo Leach in:

  50. Search for Carolina Medina-Gomez in:

  51. Search for Cameron D. Palmer in:

  52. Search for Dorota Pasko in:

  53. Search for Sonali Pechlivanis in:

  54. Search for Marjolein J. Peters in:

  55. Search for Inga Prokopenko in:

  56. Search for Alena Stančáková in:

  57. Search for Yun Ju Sung in:

  58. Search for Toshiko Tanaka in:

  59. Search for Alexander Teumer in:

  60. Search for Jana V. Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk in:

  61. Search for Loïc Yengo in:

  62. Search for Weihua Zhang in:

  63. Search for Eva Albrecht in:

  64. Search for Johan Ärnlöv in:

  65. Search for Gillian M. Arscott in:

  66. Search for Stefania Bandinelli in:

  67. Search for Amy Barrett in:

  68. Search for Claire Bellis in:

  69. Search for Amanda J. Bennett in:

  70. Search for Christian Berne in:

  71. Search for Matthias Blüher in:

  72. Search for Stefan Böhringer in:

  73. Search for Fabrice Bonnet in:

  74. Search for Yvonne Böttcher in:

  75. Search for Marcel Bruinenberg in:

  76. Search for Delia B. Carba in:

  77. Search for Ida H. Caspersen in:

  78. Search for Robert Clarke in:

  79. Search for E. Warwick Daw in:

  80. Search for Joris Deelen in:

  81. Search for Ewa Deelman in:

  82. Search for Graciela Delgado in:

  83. Search for Alex S. F. Doney in:

  84. Search for Niina Eklund in:

  85. Search for Michael R. Erdos in:

  86. Search for Karol Estrada in:

  87. Search for Elodie Eury in:

  88. Search for Nele Friedrich in:

  89. Search for Melissa E. Garcia in:

  90. Search for Vilmantas Giedraitis in:

  91. Search for Bruna Gigante in:

  92. Search for Alan S. Go in:

  93. Search for Alain Golay in:

  94. Search for Harald Grallert in:

  95. Search for Tanja B. Grammer in:

  96. Search for Jürgen Gräßler in:

  97. Search for Jagvir Grewal in:

  98. Search for Christopher J. Groves in:

  99. Search for Toomas Haller in:

  100. Search for Goran Hallmans in:

  101. Search for Catharina A. Hartman in:

  102. Search for Maija Hassinen in:

  103. Search for Caroline Hayward in:

  104. Search for Kauko Heikkilä in:

  105. Search for Karl-Heinz Herzig in:

  106. Search for Quinta Helmer in:

  107. Search for Hans L. Hillege in:

  108. Search for Oddgeir Holmen in:

  109. Search for Steven C. Hunt in:

  110. Search for Aaron Isaacs in:

  111. Search for Till Ittermann in:

  112. Search for Alan L. James in:

  113. Search for Ingegerd Johansson in:

  114. Search for Thorhildur Juliusdottir in:

  115. Search for Ioanna-Panagiota Kalafati in:

  116. Search for Leena Kinnunen in:

  117. Search for Wolfgang Koenig in:

  118. Search for Ishminder K. Kooner in:

  119. Search for Wolfgang Kratzer in:

  120. Search for Claudia Lamina in:

  121. Search for Karin Leander in:

  122. Search for Nanette R. Lee in:

  123. Search for Peter Lichtner in:

  124. Search for Lars Lind in:

  125. Search for Jaana Lindström in:

  126. Search for Stéphane Lobbens in:

  127. Search for Mattias Lorentzon in:

  128. Search for François Mach in:

  129. Search for Patrik K. E. Magnusson in:

  130. Search for Anubha Mahajan in:

  131. Search for Wendy L. McArdle in:

  132. Search for Cristina Menni in:

  133. Search for Sigrun Merger in:

  134. Search for Evelin Mihailov in:

  135. Search for Lili Milani in:

  136. Search for Rebecca Mills in:

  137. Search for Alireza Moayyeri in:

  138. Search for Keri L. Monda in:

  139. Search for Simon P. Mooijaart in:

  140. Search for Thomas W. Mühleisen in:

  141. Search for Antonella Mulas in:

  142. Search for Gabriele Müller in:

  143. Search for Martina Müller-Nurasyid in:

  144. Search for Ramaiah Nagaraja in:

  145. Search for Michael A. Nalls in:

  146. Search for Narisu Narisu in:

  147. Search for Nicola Glorioso in:

  148. Search for Ilja M. Nolte in:

  149. Search for Matthias Olden in:

  150. Search for Nigel W. Rayner in:

  151. Search for Frida Renstrom in:

  152. Search for Janina S. Ried in:

  153. Search for Neil R. Robertson in:

  154. Search for Lynda M. Rose in:

  155. Search for Serena Sanna in:

  156. Search for Hubert Scharnagl in:

  157. Search for Salome Scholtens in:

  158. Search for Bengt Sennblad in:

  159. Search for Thomas Seufferlein in:

  160. Search for Colleen M. Sitlani in:

  161. Search for Albert Vernon Smith in:

  162. Search for Kathleen Stirrups in:

  163. Search for Heather M. Stringham in:

  164. Search for Johan Sundström in:

  165. Search for Morris A. Swertz in:

  166. Search for Amy J. Swift in:

  167. Search for Ann-Christine Syvänen in:

  168. Search for Bamidele O. Tayo in:

  169. Search for Barbara Thorand in:

  170. Search for Gudmar Thorleifsson in:

  171. Search for Andreas Tomaschitz in:

  172. Search for Chiara Troffa in:

  173. Search for Floor V. A. van Oort in:

  174. Search for Niek Verweij in:

  175. Search for Judith M. Vonk in:

  176. Search for Lindsay L. Waite in:

  177. Search for Roman Wennauer in:

  178. Search for Tom Wilsgaard in:

  179. Search for Mary K. Wojczynski in:

  180. Search for Andrew Wong in:

  181. Search for Qunyuan Zhang in:

  182. Search for Jing Hua Zhao in:

  183. Search for Eoin P. Brennan in:

  184. Search for Murim Choi in:

  185. Search for Per Eriksson in:

  186. Search for Lasse Folkersen in:

  187. Search for Anders Franco-Cereceda in:

  188. Search for Ali G. Gharavi in:

  189. Search for Åsa K. Hedman in:

  190. Search for Marie-France Hivert in:

  191. Search for Jinyan Huang in:

  192. Search for Stavroula Kanoni in:

  193. Search for Fredrik Karpe in:

  194. Search for Sarah Keildson in:

  195. Search for Krzysztof Kiryluk in:

  196. Search for Liming Liang in:

  197. Search for Richard P. Lifton in:

  198. Search for Baoshan Ma in:

  199. Search for Amy J. McKnight in:

  200. Search for Ruth McPherson in:

  201. Search for Andres Metspalu in:

  202. Search for Josine L. Min in:

  203. Search for Miriam F. Moffatt in:

  204. Search for Grant W. Montgomery in:

  205. Search for Joanne M. Murabito in:

  206. Search for George Nicholson in:

  207. Search for Dale R. Nyholt in:

  208. Search for Christian Olsson in:

  209. Search for John R. B. Perry in:

  210. Search for Eva Reinmaa in:

  211. Search for Rany M. Salem in:

  212. Search for Niina Sandholm in:

  213. Search for Eric E. Schadt in:

  214. Search for Robert A. Scott in:

  215. Search for Lisette Stolk in:

  216. Search for Edgar E. Vallejo in:

  217. Search for Harm-Jan Westra in:

  218. Search for Krina T. Zondervan in:

  219. Search for Philippe Amouyel in:

  220. Search for Dominique Arveiler in:

  221. Search for Stephan J. L. Bakker in:

  222. Search for John Beilby in:

  223. Search for Richard N. Bergman in:

  224. Search for John Blangero in:

  225. Search for Morris J. Brown in:

  226. Search for Michel Burnier in:

  227. Search for Harry Campbell in:

  228. Search for Aravinda Chakravarti in:

  229. Search for Peter S. Chines in:

  230. Search for Simone Claudi-Boehm in:

  231. Search for Francis S. Collins in:

  232. Search for Dana C. Crawford in:

  233. Search for John Danesh in:

  234. Search for Ulf de Faire in:

  235. Search for Eco J. C. de Geus in:

  236. Search for Marcus Dörr in:

  237. Search for Raimund Erbel in:

  238. Search for Johan G. Eriksson in:

  239. Search for Martin Farrall in:

  240. Search for Ele Ferrannini in:

  241. Search for Jean Ferrières in:

  242. Search for Nita G. Forouhi in:

  243. Search for Terrence Forrester in:

  244. Search for Oscar H. Franco in:

  245. Search for Ron T. Gansevoort in:

  246. Search for Christian Gieger in:

  247. Search for Vilmundur Gudnason in:

  248. Search for Christopher A. Haiman in:

  249. Search for Tamara B. Harris in:

  250. Search for Andrew T. Hattersley in:

  251. Search for Markku Heliövaara in:

  252. Search for Andrew A. Hicks in:

  253. Search for Aroon D. Hingorani in:

  254. Search for Wolfgang Hoffmann in:

  255. Search for Albert Hofman in:

  256. Search for Georg Homuth in:

  257. Search for Steve E. Humphries in:

  258. Search for Elina Hyppönen in:

  259. Search for Thomas Illig in:

  260. Search for Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin in:

  261. Search for Berit Johansen in:

  262. Search for Pekka Jousilahti in:

  263. Search for Antti M. Jula in:

  264. Search for Jaakko Kaprio in:

  265. Search for Frank Kee in:

  266. Search for Sirkka M. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi in:

  267. Search for Jaspal S. Kooner in:

  268. Search for Charles Kooperberg in:

  269. Search for Peter Kovacs in:

  270. Search for Aldi T. Kraja in:

  271. Search for Meena Kumari in:

  272. Search for Kari Kuulasmaa in:

  273. Search for Johanna Kuusisto in:

  274. Search for Timo A. Lakka in:

  275. Search for Claudia Langenberg in:

  276. Search for Loic Le Marchand in:

  277. Search for Terho Lehtimäki in:

  278. Search for Valeriya Lyssenko in:

  279. Search for Satu Männistö in:

  280. Search for André Marette in:

  281. Search for Tara C. Matise in:

  282. Search for Colin A. McKenzie in:

  283. Search for Barbara McKnight in:

  284. Search for Arthur W. Musk in:

  285. Search for Stefan Möhlenkamp in:

  286. Search for Andrew D. Morris in:

  287. Search for Mari Nelis in:

  288. Search for Claes Ohlsson in:

  289. Search for Albertine J. Oldehinkel in:

  290. Search for Ken K. Ong in:

  291. Search for Lyle J. Palmer in:

  292. Search for Brenda W. Penninx in:

  293. Search for Annette Peters in:

  294. Search for Peter P. Pramstaller in:

  295. Search for Olli T. Raitakari in:

  296. Search for Tuomo Rankinen in:

  297. Search for D. C. Rao in:

  298. Search for Treva K. Rice in:

  299. Search for Paul M. Ridker in:

  300. Search for Marylyn D. Ritchie in:

  301. Search for Igor Rudan in:

  302. Search for Veikko Salomaa in:

  303. Search for Nilesh J. Samani in:

  304. Search for Jouko Saramies in:

  305. Search for Mark A. Sarzynski in:

  306. Search for Peter E. H. Schwarz in:

  307. Search for Alan R. Shuldiner in:

  308. Search for Jan A. Staessen in:

  309. Search for Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir in:

  310. Search for Ronald P. Stolk in:

  311. Search for Konstantin Strauch in:

  312. Search for Anke Tönjes in:

  313. Search for Angelo Tremblay in:

  314. Search for Elena Tremoli in:

  315. Search for Marie-Claude Vohl in:

  316. Search for Uwe Völker in:

  317. Search for Peter Vollenweider in:

  318. Search for James F. Wilson in:

  319. Search for Jacqueline C. Witteman in:

  320. Search for Linda S. Adair in:

  321. Search for Murielle Bochud in:

  322. Search for Bernhard O. Boehm in:

  323. Search for Stefan R. Bornstein in:

  324. Search for Claude Bouchard in:

  325. Search for Stéphane Cauchi in:

  326. Search for Mark J. Caulfield in:

  327. Search for John C. Chambers in:

  328. Search for Daniel I. Chasman in:

  329. Search for Richard S. Cooper in:

  330. Search for George Dedoussis in:

  331. Search for Luigi Ferrucci in:

  332. Search for Philippe Froguel in:

  333. Search for Hans-Jörgen Grabe in:

  334. Search for Anders Hamsten in:

  335. Search for Jennie Hui in:

  336. Search for Kristian Hveem in:

  337. Search for Karl-Heinz Jöckel in:

  338. Search for Mika Kivimaki in:

  339. Search for Diana Kuh in:

  340. Search for Markku Laakso in:

  341. Search for Yongmei Liu in:

  342. Search for Winfried März in:

  343. Search for Patricia B. Munroe in:

  344. Search for Inger Njølstad in:

  345. Search for Ben A. Oostra in:

  346. Search for Colin N. A. Palmer in:

  347. Search for Nancy L. Pedersen in:

  348. Search for Markus Perola in:

  349. Search for Louis Pérusse in:

  350. Search for Ulrike Peters in:

  351. Search for Chris Power in:

  352. Search for Thomas Quertermous in:

  353. Search for Rainer Rauramaa in:

  354. Search for Fernando Rivadeneira in:

  355. Search for Timo E. Saaristo in:

  356. Search for Danish Saleheen in:

  357. Search for Juha Sinisalo in:

  358. Search for P. Eline Slagboom in:

  359. Search for Harold Snieder in:

  360. Search for Tim D. Spector in:

  361. Search for Unnur Thorsteinsdottir in:

  362. Search for Michael Stumvoll in:

  363. Search for Jaakko Tuomilehto in:

  364. Search for André G. Uitterlinden in:

  365. Search for Matti Uusitupa in:

  366. Search for Pim van der Harst in:

  367. Search for Giovanni Veronesi in:

  368. Search for Mark Walker in:

  369. Search for Nicholas J. Wareham in:

  370. Search for Hugh Watkins in:

  371. Search for H-Erich Wichmann in:

  372. Search for Goncalo R. Abecasis in:

  373. Search for Themistocles L. Assimes in:

  374. Search for Sonja I. Berndt in:

  375. Search for Michael Boehnke in:

  376. Search for Ingrid B. Borecki in:

  377. Search for Panos Deloukas in:

  378. Search for Lude Franke in:

  379. Search for Timothy M. Frayling in:

  380. Search for Leif C. Groop in:

  381. Search for David J. Hunter in:

  382. Search for Robert C. Kaplan in:

  383. Search for Jeffrey R. O’Connell in:

  384. Search for Lu Qi in:

  385. Search for David Schlessinger in:

  386. Search for David P. Strachan in:

  387. Search for Kari Stefansson in:

  388. Search for Cornelia M. van Duijn in:

  389. Search for Cristen J. Willer in: