Extended Data Figure 5 : Correlation between the amplitudes of ENSO and precipitation variability.

From: Evolution and forcing mechanisms of El Niño over the past 21,000 years

Extended Data Figure 5

Map of the correlation between the 200-year running amplitudes of interannual ENSO and precipitation variability during 21–15 kyr ago (a), 15–10 kyr ago (b) and 10–0 kyr ago (c). The two black crosses indicate the region of proxy observation in the Galapagos islands7 and on the Ecuador coast2, respectively, and the three black boxes denote the regions of Niño1 + Niño2, Niño3 and Niño4 as discussed in Extended Data Fig. 3. The result will be similar if the amplitude is calculated directly using a 300-year window as in Extended Data Fig. 3. Colours in model correlations indicate regions where the correlations are significant at more than the 99% level.