Extended Data Figure 4 : Correlation map between ENSO and precipitation.

From: Evolution and forcing mechanisms of El Niño over the past 21,000 years

Extended Data Figure 4

ad, Map of time series correlation of interannual (1.5–7 yr) variability between monthly Niño3.4 SST and precipitation during 21–20 kyr ago (a), 16–15 kyr ago (b) and 1–0 kyr ago (c) in TRACE, and the present observation (1981–2005) (d). eh, Map of interdecadal amplitude correlation between interannual ENSO (Niño3.4 SST) and precipitation variability during 21–20 kyr ago (e), 15–10 kyr ago (f), 10–5 kyr ago (g) and 5–0 kyr ago (h). All the anomalies are the monthly data with a 3-month running mean after filtered to the 1.5–7-year band. For eh the amplitude is calculated as the standard deviation in a 40-year window, and the detrended amplitude in the 1,000-year period is used to calculate the amplitude correlation. The two black crosses indicate the region of proxy observation in the Galapagos islands7 and on the Ecuador coast2, respectively, and the three black boxes denote the regions of Niño1 + Niño2, Niño3 and Niño4 as discussed in Extended Data Fig. 3. Colours in correlations indicate regions where the correlation is significant at more than the 99% level.