Extended Data Figure 9 : Response of equatorial thermocline in the Holocene.

From: Evolution and forcing mechanisms of El Niño over the past 21,000 years

Extended Data Figure 9

ac, The annual cycle of the difference between 10 kyr ago and 1 kyr ago of insolation (a), and in South Pacific temperature (°C) at the surface (b) and 149 m depth (c) for different latitudes in TRACE. Zonal mean annual mean temperature difference in the upper ocean of the South Pacific (180–100° W) (d). In the subtropical South Pacific (40–10° S), the insolation warming in austral winter (in a) leads to a SST warming in austral winter–spring (in b), which is then ventilated into the subsurface thermocline as a warming throughout the year (in c), and eventually into the equatorial thermocline (in d), decreasing the stratification there.