Extended Data Figure 8 : Evolution of feedback coefficients.

From: Evolution and forcing mechanisms of El Niño over the past 21,000 years

Extended Data Figure 8

Response sensitivity and mean state for interannual variability in the eastern equatorial Pacific region (170° E–80° W, 5° S–5° N) in TRACE. a, Atmospheric response sensitivity to SST. b, Zonal current response sensitivity to wind stress. c, Upwelling response sensitivity to wind stress. d, Thermocline response sensitivity to wind stress (βhah, brown), βh (cyan) and ah (grey). e, Mean zonal SST gradient. f, Mean stratification. g, Mean upwelling. In ag, each curve is plotted to the same relative scale such that their variation can be compared directly: the scale of a variable y ranges from median (y) − 0.6 × |mean (y)| to median (y) + 0.6 × |mean (y)|.