Figure 1 : A resilience switch.

From: A molecular knife to dice depression

Figure 1

a, Dias et al.2 report that D2-type medium spiny neurons are not activated in 'depressed' mice. As a consequence, β-catenin protein remains in the cytoplasm in these cells, unable to enter the nucleus, and the Dicer1 gene is thus inactive. 'Anti-resilience' proteins may therefore be produced from messenger RNA that would otherwise have been inhibited by microRNAs (miRNAs) generated by the Dicer1 protein. b, In resilient mice, β-catenin enters the nucleus of activated neurons, thereby turning on Dicer1 transcription. Elevated levels of Dicer1 protein increase production of miRNAs and possibly other effectors of resilience. This might, in turn, inhibit the production of anti-resilience proteins, because of binding and inhibition of mRNA by miRNAs.