Previously known only from isolated teeth and lower jaw fragments recovered from the Cretaceous and Palaeogene of the Southern Hemisphere, the Gondwanatheria constitute the most poorly known of all major mammaliaform radiations. Here we report the discovery of the first skull material of a gondwanatherian, a complete and well-preserved cranium from Upper Cretaceous strata in Madagascar that we assign to a new genus and species. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports its placement within Gondwanatheria, which are recognized as monophyletic and closely related to multituberculates, an evolutionarily successful clade of Mesozoic mammals known almost exclusively from the Northern Hemisphere. The new taxon is the largest known mammaliaform from the Mesozoic of Gondwana. Its craniofacial anatomy reveals that it was herbivorous, large-eyed and agile, with well-developed high-frequency hearing and a keen sense of smell. The cranium exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features, the disparity of which is extreme and probably reflective of a long evolutionary history in geographic isolation.

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We thank the Université d’Antananarivo, the Madagascar Institut pour la Conservation des Ecosystèmes Tropicaux, and the villagers of the Lac Kinkony Study Area for logistical support of fieldwork; various ministries of the Republic of Madagascar for permission to conduct field research; members of the 2010 field research team for their efforts; J. Thostenson and M. Hill of the American Museum of Natural History Microscopy & Imaging Facility, New York, New York, and J. Diehm and B. Ruether of Avonix Imaging, Plymouth, Minnesota, and various members of the Department of Radiology at Stony Brook University for providing expert assistance in computed tomography scanning; L. Betti-Nash for artwork; J. Neville for photography; D. Pulaski for reconstructing the cranium and building the finite element models; Z.-X. Luo, G. Rougier and A. Weil for their reviews of the paper; and the National Geographic Society (8597-09) and the National Science Foundation (EAR-0446488, EAR-1123642) for funding.

Author information


  1. Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA

    • David W. Krause
    • , Simone Hoffmann
    • , Joseph R. Groenke
    •  & Erik R. Seiffert
  2. Section of Mammals, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 5800 Baum Boulevard, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15206, USA

    • John R. Wible
  3. Department of Anthropology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA

    • E. Christopher Kirk
    •  & Addison D. Kemp
  4. Steinmann-Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie der Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany

    • Julia A. Schultz
    •  & Wighart von Koenigswald
  5. Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA

    • James B. Rossie
  6. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA

    • Patrick M. O’Connor
    •  & Waymon L. Holloway
  7. Ohio Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Studies, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 USA

    • Patrick M. O’Connor
    •  & Waymon L. Holloway
  8. Department of Biology, 221 Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA

    • Elizabeth R. Dumont
  9. Geology Department, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, St Paul, Minnesota 55105, USA

    • Raymond R. Rogers
  10. Département de Géologie, Université d’Antananarivo, Antananarivo (101), Madagascar

    • Lydia J. Rahantarisoa
  11. Département de Paléontologie, Université d’Antananarivo, Antananarivo (101), Madagascar

    • Haingoson Andriamialison


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J.R.G. prepared the fossil; J.R.G., S.H., W.L.H. and P.M.O. conducted most of the micro-computed tomography digital preparation; L.J.R. and R.R.R. provided geological data; H.A. provided logistical support; J.R.G., S.H., D.W.K., W.v.K., P.M.O., J.B.R. and J.R.W. provided most of the descriptions and comparisons; E.R.D., A.D.K., D.W.K., E.C.K., W.v.K., P.M.O., J.A.S. and J.R.W. conducted various functional and comparative analyses; S.H., D.W.K., E.R.S. and J.R.W. contributed to the phylogenetic analysis; D.W.K. developed the manuscript, with contributions from all authors.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to David W. Krause.

Vintana sertichi has been assigned the Life Science Identifier (LSID)

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    Supplementary Information

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  1. 1.

    Virtual reconstruction of cranium of Vintana sertichi (UA 9972) from μCT dataset, with full rotation (360°) about a dorsoventral axis.

    Visualization maps dataset density contrast with false colors resembling those on actual specimen, with the exception of tooth enamel.

  2. 2.

    Virtual reconstruction of cranium of Vintana sertichi (UA 9972) from µCT dataset, with full rotation (360°) about an anteroposterior axis.

    Visualization maps dataset density contrast with false colors resembling those on actual specimen, with the exception of tooth enamel.

  3. 3.

    Virtual reconstruction of elements of right side of cranium of Vintana sertichi (UA 9972).

    Animation of translation of cranial elements from articulated position to Beauchene-style ("exploded") presentation. Cranial elements presented as polygon surfaces created from segmentation of μCT dataset.

  4. 4.

    Virtual reconstruction of left molariform toothrow (MF2–MF4) of Vintana sertichi (UA 9972) from µCT dataset, with two full rotations (each 360°) about an anteroposterior axis.

    First rotation highlights surface morphology. Second rotation highlights internal morphology, with pulp cavities in green and infundibula in blue.

  5. 5.

    Virtual reconstruction of left molariform toothrow (MF2–MF4) of Vintana sertichi (UA 9972) from µCT dataset, with two full rotations (each 360°) about a dorsoventral axis.

    First rotation highlights surface morphology. Second rotation highlights internal morphology, with pulp cavities in green and infundibula in blue.

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