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Experimental realization of universal geometric quantum gates with solid-state spins


Experimental realization of a universal set of quantum logic gates is the central requirement for the implementation of a quantum computer. In an ‘all-geometric’ approach to quantum computation1,2, the quantum gates are implemented using Berry phases3 and their non-Abelian extensions, holonomies4, from geometric transformation of quantum states in the Hilbert space5. Apart from its fundamental interest and rich mathematical structure, the geometric approach has some built-in noise-resilience features1,2,6,7. On the experimental side, geometric phases and holonomies have been observed in thermal ensembles of liquid molecules using nuclear magnetic resonance8,9; however, such systems are known to be non-scalable for the purposes of quantum computing10. There are proposals to implement geometric quantum computation in scalable experimental platforms such as trapped ions11, superconducting quantum bits12 and quantum dots13, and a recent experiment has realized geometric single-bit gates in a superconducting system14. Here we report the experimental realization of a universal set of geometric quantum gates using the solid-state spins of diamond nitrogen–vacancy centres. These diamond defects provide a scalable experimental platform15,16,17 with the potential for room-temperature quantum computing16,17,18,19, which has attracted strong interest in recent years20. Our experiment shows that all-geometric and potentially robust quantum computation can be realized with solid-state spin quantum bits, making use of recent advances in the coherent control of this system15,16,17,18,19,20.

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Figure 1: Geometric gates in a diamond nitrogen–vacancy centre.
Figure 2: Experimental results for single-bit geometric gates.
Figure 3: Level scheme and pulse sequence for the geometric CNOT gate.
Figure 4: Experimental results for the geometric CNOT gate.


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We thank M. Lukin’s group for discussions. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China 2011CBA00302 and the quantum information project from the Ministry of Education of China. In addition, L.-M.D. acknowledges support from the IARPA MUSIQC program, the AFOSR and the ARO MURI program.

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Authors and Affiliations



L.-M.D. had the idea for the experiment and supervised the project. C.Z., W.-B.W., L.H., W.-G.Z., C.-Y.D., F.W. carried out the experiment. L.-M.D. and C.Z. wrote the manuscript.

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Correspondence to L.-M. Duan.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Zu, C., Wang, WB., He, L. et al. Experimental realization of universal geometric quantum gates with solid-state spins. Nature 514, 72–75 (2014).

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