The Procellarum region is a broad area on the nearside of the Moon that is characterized by low elevations1, thin crust2, and high surface concentrations of the heat-producing elements uranium, thorium, and potassium3,4. The region has been interpreted as an ancient impact basin approximately 3,200 kilometres in diameter5,6,7, although supporting evidence at the surface would have been largely obscured as a result of the great antiquity and poor preservation of any diagnostic features. Here we use data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission8 to examine the subsurface structure of Procellarum. The Bouguer gravity anomalies and gravity gradients reveal a pattern of narrow linear anomalies that border Procellarum and are interpreted to be the frozen remnants of lava-filled rifts and the underlying feeder dykes that served as the magma plumbing system for much of the nearside mare volcanism. The discontinuous surface structures that were earlier interpreted as remnants of an impact basin rim are shown in GRAIL data to be a part of this continuous set of border structures in a quasi-rectangular pattern with angular intersections, contrary to the expected circular or elliptical shape of an impact basin9. The spatial pattern of magmatic-tectonic structures bounding Procellarum is consistent with their formation in response to thermal stresses produced by the differential cooling of the province relative to its surroundings, coupled with magmatic activity driven by the greater-than-average heat flux in the region.
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The GRAIL mission is a component of the NASA Discovery Program and is performed under contract to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. J.C.A.-H. was supported by grant NNX12AL20G from NASA’s GRAIL Guest Scientist Program.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Extended data figures and tables
a, b, Filters were applied during the calculation of the relief along the crust–mantle interface (solid lines) and the mare–basement interface (dashed lines) for cases in which the relief along the two interfaces was either isostatic before mare loading (a) or equal and opposite in amplitude (b). The filter in b imposes the isostatic condition from degrees 1 to 3 and a linear transition to the equal-amplitude filter from degrees 3 to 10. Both filters apply a cosine taper from degrees 125 to 150. The mare–basement filter is shown for illustration purposes only. In practice, the relief along the mare–basement interface was calculated from the residual Bouguer anomaly after the calculation of the crust–mantle interface relief (equivalent to using the filter shown with the original Bouguer gravity).
Extended Data Figure 3 Predicted thicknesses of the crust and maria and average cross-sections across two of the border anomalies.
Predicted thickness of the maria (left column) and underlying feldspathic crust (middle column), and cross-sections of the modelled structures of anomaly 1 (right column, top) and anomaly 2 (right column, bottom) showing the variations in the thicknesses of the mare (dark grey) and feldspathic crust (light grey). Models are for cases as follows: a–d, isostatic relief along the two interfaces before mare infilling with a mantle density of 3,220 kg m−3; e–h, equal-amplitude relief along the two interfaces with a mantle density of 3,220 kg m−3; i–l, isostatic relief along the two interfaces before mare infilling with a mantle density of 3,500 kg m−3; m–p, equal-amplitude relief along the two interfaces with a mantle density of 3,500 kg m−3; q–t, all gravity anomalies at degrees >10 ascribed to relief on the mare–basement interface; and u-x, all gravity anomalies at degrees >10 ascribed to relief on the crust-mantle interface.
a, The temperatures as functions of time at a depth of 25 km are shown within the PKT for cases in which KREEP-rich material is either concentrated at the base of the crust (solid line) or is distributed throughout the crust (dashed line), as well as the temperature outside the PKT (dotted line). The period between 4.0 and 3.0 Gyr ago that is the focus of the stress modelling is indicated by the shaded box. b, c, The temperatures as functions of depth both inside and outside the PKT are shown for KREEP-rich material concentrated at the base of the crust (b) and for KREEP-rich material distributed throughout the crust (c).
Extended Data Figure 5 Predicted changes in temperature relative to areas outside the PKT and absolute temperature change between 4.0 and 3.0 Gyr ago.
Results are shown for cases with KREEP concentrated at the base of the crust (a, b) and KREEP distributed throughout the crust (c, d). The PKT is centred on the pole at the left side of the panels. The region shown in Extended Data Figs 6 and 7 (encompassing 90° of arc extending radially outward from the centre of the PKT and downward to a depth of 50 km) is outlined in black.
Extended Data Figure 6 Predicted lithospheric stresses and magma ascent for the case of 10 km of KREEP at the base of the crust.
Cross-sections show the following: a, the in-plane horizontal stresses (radial to the centre of the PKT, the far-field stress profile was subtracted to calculate the relative stress); b, the difference between the in-plane horizontal stress and the vertical stress; c, the magma ascent criteria; and d, the deviatoric stress. The magma ascent criteria in c reveal portions of the crust in which the horizontal stresses are tensile relative to the vertical stresses to permit the formation of vertical dykes (dark grey), where the vertical stress gradient is more favourable to magma ascent than the lithosphere far from the PKT (light grey), where magma will rise unassisted by other factors such as pressurized magma chambers (red), and where none of the criteria are satisfied (diagonal lines).
Extended Data Figure 7 Predicted lithospheric stresses and magma ascent for the case of 10 km of KREEP basalt distributed uniformly through a 40-km-thick crust.
All panels are as for Extended Data Fig. 6.
Extended Data Figure 8 Additional comparisons of Procellarum KREEP terrane to the Enceladus south polar terrain (SPT).
a, The PKT is characterized by high heat flow as a result of the enhanced abundances of radioactive elements3 (represented by the concentration of thorium4). b, The border structures of the SPT as revealed by Cassini ISS images24 also trace a quasi-rectangular pattern enclosing a region of elevated brightness temperatures and enhanced heat flow26 (c) All maps are in a simple polar projection. In all panels, the circle corresponds to an angular diameter of 180° of surface arc, divided into 10° increments.
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Andrews-Hanna, J., Besserer, J., Head III, J. et al. Structure and evolution of the lunar Procellarum region as revealed by GRAIL gravity data. Nature 514, 68–71 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13697
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