Genetic diversity is the amount of variation observed between DNA sequences from distinct individuals of a given species. This pivotal concept of population genetics has implications for species health, domestication, management and conservation. Levels of genetic diversity seem to vary greatly in natural populations and species, but the determinants of this variation, and particularly the relative influences of species biology and ecology versus population history, are still largely mysterious1,2. Here we show that the diversity of a species is predictable, and is determined in the first place by its ecological strategy. We investigated the genome-wide diversity of 76 non-model animal species by sequencing the transcriptome of two to ten individuals in each species. The distribution of genetic diversity between species revealed no detectable influence of geographic range or invasive status but was accurately predicted by key species traits related to parental investment: long-lived or low-fecundity species with brooding ability were genetically less diverse than short-lived or highly fecund ones. Our analysis demonstrates the influence of long-term life-history strategies on species response to short-term environmental perturbations, a result with immediate implications for conservation policies.
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Sequence Read Archive
We thank the following for providing samples: F. Delsuc, E. Douzery, M. Tilak, G. Dugas, S. Harispe, C. Benoist, D. Bouchon (woodlice), J. Bierne, M. Bierne, B. Houseaux, M. Strand, C. Lemaire, D. Lallias, Service Modèle Biologique Station Marine Roscoff (nemertines), X. Turon, S. Lopez-Legentil (Cystodytes), P. Jarne, P. David, R. Dillon, J. Auld, R. Relyea, C. Lively, J. Jokela, V. Poullain, T. Stewart (snails), S. Lapègue, V. Boulo, F. Batista, D. Lallias, L. Fast Jensen, M. Cantou (oysters), J. Do Nascimento, C. Daguin-Thiébaut, M. Cantou (crabs), L. Bonnaud (cuttlefish), D. Aurelle (gorgonians), F. Viard, Y. Pechenik, A. Cahill, R. Colins (slipper limpets), L. Dupont (earthworms), D. Jollivet (trumpet worms), M. A. Felix, I. Nuez (nematodes), N. Rodes, T. Lenormand, E. Flaven (brine shrimps), Rotterdam Zoo, Zurich Zoo, C. Libert, Montpellier Zoo, S. Martin, la Ferme aux Crocodiles, O. Verneau, C. Ayres, M. Carretero, M. Vanberger, K. Pobolsaj, M. Zuffi, C. Palacios, L. du Preez, B. Halpern, Budapest Zoo (turtles), P. Peret, C. Doutrelant, B. Halpern, B. Rosivall (tits), M. de Dinechin, B. Rey (penguins), Z. Melo-Fereira, P. Alves (hares), N. Brand, M. Chapuisat (bees), R. Blatrix, A. Lenoir, I. Nodet, A. Lugagne, S. Blanquart, L. Serres-Giardi, V. Roustang, N. François, G. Ballantyne, A. Carbonnel, Y. Samuel, G. James, G. Kalytta, F. Guerrini, S. Stenzel, J. Beekman, X. Cerda, S. Ikoen (ants), I. Hanski, S. Ikonen, J. Kullberg, Z. Kolev (fritillary butterflies), F. Viard, X. Turon, Di Jiang, D. Chourrout, B. Vercaemer, E. Newman-Smith, Ascidian Stock Center, Service Modèle Biologique Station Marine Roscoff (ciona), L. Excoffier, G. Heckel (voles), F. Dedeine (termites), C. Atyame, O. Duron, M. Weill (mosquitoes), M. Cantou, H. Violette, F. Batista, J. Hondeville (seahorses), C. Fraïsse, G. Pogson, N. Saarman, J. Normand (mussels), E. Poulin, C. Gonzalez-Weivar, and J. P. Feral (sea urchins). This work was supported by European Research Council advanced grant 232971 (PopPhyl).