Extended Data Figure 3 : Scanning parameter space to produce gradual changes.

From: Replaying evolutionary transitions from the dental fossil record

Extended Data Figure 3

a, Parameters producing variation in cusp number were scanned at 10 percent intervals up to 90 percent change from the wild-type (WT) mouse. Growth factor domains, produced by enamel knots, were used to tabulate cusps numbers (threshold = 0.04). b, Simulated teeth show the minimum number of cusps that can be produced by changing each parameter. Only parameter Act produced single-cusped morphology. Plus and minus signs after each parameter denote to the direction of parameter change that produced a decrease in cusp number. Act = activator auto-activation, Da = activator diffusion, Int = inhibitor production threshold, Inh = Activator inhibition by inhibitor, Di = inhibitor diffusion, Set = growth factor production threshold, Sec = growth factor secretion rate, Ds = growth factor diffusion, Dff = differentiation rate, Egr = epithelial proliferation rate, Mgr = mesenchymal proliferation rate. All simulations were run for a fixed number of iterations (14,000).