Extended Data Figure 1 : Antarctic fur seal life cycle and directed acyclic graph of multi-event mark–recapture models used to estimate vital rates.

From: Climate change selects for heterozygosity in a declining fur seal population

Extended Data Figure 1

a, In the life cycle graph, nodes correspond to stages and arrows to probabilities of transition () between stages (Supplementary Information), from year t to t + 1. Subscripts are for ages 0, for weanlings, to 6 at full physical maturity, and breeding stages. P6 acts as a terminal node for individuals observed alive but never recruited. Fertilities (f) are female weanlings contributed by females breeding at t + 1. b, The acyclic graph shows intermediate sets of stages which are connected by rows, with each stage in a row being represented by a node. Different transitions are represented by arrows linking intermediate states. Nodes are different in a and b. See Supplementary Information for definitions of stages and vital rates.