Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group1, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians1,2,3,4. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens5. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians6. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression7,8,9 and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi5 and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies10, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity.

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We thank W. Holden and J. Pask for their assistance with the immunological assays, J. Cohen for comments on the manuscript, and our undergraduate assistants H. Folse, S. Lopez, L. Soto, S. Hekkanen and E. Creasey. We also thank V. Vasquez and J. Longcore for providing the Bd isolates used in these experiments. Funds were provided by grants from the National Science Foundation (DEB 0516227 and EF-1241889 to J.R.R. and IOS-1121758 to L.A.R.-S.), the National Institutes of Health (R01GM109499 to J.R.R.), the US Department of Agriculture (NRI 2006-01370 and 2009-35102-0543 to J.R.R.), the US Environmental Protection Agency grant (STAR R83-3835 and CAREER 83518801 to J.R.R.), and the NSF RCN “Refining and Diversifying Ecoimmunology”. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Author notes

    • Taegan A. McMahon
    •  & Jason R. Rohr

    These authors contributed equally to this work.


  1. University of South Florida, Department of Integrative Biology, Tampa, Florida 33620, USA

    • Taegan A. McMahon
    • , Brittany F. Sears
    • , Scott M. Bessler
    • , Jenise M. Brown
    • , Kaitlin Deutsch
    • , Neal T. Halstead
    • , Garrett Lentz
    • , Nadia Tenouri
    • , Suzanne Young
    • , David J. Civitello
    • , Nicole Ortega
    •  & Jason R. Rohr
  2. University of Tampa, Department of Biology, Tampa, Florida 33606, USA

    • Taegan A. McMahon
  3. Allegheny College, Department of Biology, Meadville, Pennsylvania 16335, USA

    • Matthew D. Venesky
  4. Vanderbilt University, Biological Sciences Department, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA

    • J. Scott Fites
    •  & Louise A. Rollins-Smith
  5. Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology and Pediatrics, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA

    • Laura K. Reinert
    •  & Louise A. Rollins-Smith
  6. Oakland University, Department of Biology, Rochester, Michigan 48309, USA

    • Thomas R. Raffel


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T.A.M., T.R.R., J.R.R., B.F.S., N.T.H. and J.M.B. conceived and designed the first immunological resistance experiment, T.A.M., J.R.R., B.F.S., S.M.B., N.T.H., N.O. and J.M.B conceived and designed the second immunological resistance experiment, M.D.V. and J.R.R. conceived and designed the behavioural resistance experiment. T.A.M. directed the first and second immunological resistance experiments and M.D.V. directed the behavioural resistance experiments. T.A.M., B.F.S., S.M.B., N.T.H., J.M.B., G.L., N.T., S.Y. and M.D.V. conducted the first and second immunological resistance experiments; M.D.V. and K.D. conducted the behavioural resistance experiments, and T.A.M., L.K.R., J.S.F. and L.A.R.-S. conducted the antimicrobial peptide collection and lymphocyte assays. T.A.M. and J.R.R. conducted the statistical analyses for the first and second immunological resistance experiments and D.J.C. consulted on these analyses; M.D.V. and J.R.R. conducted the statistical analyses for the behavioural resistance experiment. J.R.R. wrote the manuscript and handled all submissions and revisions. T.A.M. and B.F.S. wrote parts of the methods, and all authors contributed to its editing.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Taegan A. McMahon or Jason R. Rohr.

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