Letter | Published:

Tracking photon jumps with repeated quantum non-demolition parity measurements

Nature volume 511, pages 444448 (24 July 2014) | Download Citation


Quantum error correction is required for a practical quantum computer because of the fragile nature of quantum information. In quantum error correction, information is redundantly stored in a large quantum state space and one or more observables must be monitored to reveal the occurrence of an error, without disturbing the information encoded in an unknown quantum state. Such observables, typically multi-quantum-bit parities, must correspond to a special symmetry property inherent in the encoding scheme. Measurements of these observables, or error syndromes, must also be performed in a quantum non-demolition way (projecting without further perturbing the state) and more quickly than errors occur. Previously, quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum jumps between states of well-defined energy have been performed in systems such as trapped ions1,2,3, electrons4, cavity quantum electrodynamics5,6, nitrogen–vacancy centres7,8,9 and superconducting quantum bits10,11. So far, however, no fast and repeated monitoring of an error syndrome has been achieved. Here we track the quantum jumps of a possible error syndrome, namely the photon number parity of a microwave cavity, by mapping this property onto an ancilla quantum bit, whose only role is to facilitate quantum state manipulation and measurement. This quantity is just the error syndrome required in a recently proposed scheme for a hardware-efficient protected quantum memory using Schrödinger cat states (quantum superpositions of different coherent states of light) in a harmonic oscillator12. We demonstrate the projective nature of this measurement onto a region of state space with well-defined parity by observing the collapse of a coherent state onto even or odd cat states. The measurement is fast compared with the cavity lifetime, has a high single-shot fidelity and has a 99.8 per cent probability per single measurement of leaving the parity unchanged. In combination with the deterministic encoding of quantum information in cat states realized earlier13,14, the quantum non-demolition parity tracking that we demonstrate represents an important step towards implementing an active system that extends the lifetime of a quantum bit.

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We thank L. Jiang and S. M. Girvin for discussions. Facilities use was supported by the Yale Institute for Nanoscience and Quantum Engineering and the US NSF MRSEC DMR 1119826. This research was supported in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office (W911NF-09-1-0369) and in part by the US Army Research Office (W911NF-09-1-0514). All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of IARPA, the ODNI or the US government. M.M. acknowledges partial support from the Agence National de Recherche under the project EPOQ2, ANR-09-JCJC-0070. B.V. acknowledges partial support from NSF under the project PHY-1309996.

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Author notes

    • L. Sun
    •  & G. Kirchmair

    Present addresses: Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China (L.S.); Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria and Institut für Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Otto-Hittmair-Platz 1, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria (G.K.).


  1. Departments of Applied Physics and Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA

    • L. Sun
    • , A. Petrenko
    • , Z. Leghtas
    • , B. Vlastakis
    • , G. Kirchmair
    • , K. M. Sliwa
    • , A. Narla
    • , M. Hatridge
    • , S. Shankar
    • , J. Blumoff
    • , L. Frunzio
    • , M. Mirrahimi
    • , M. H. Devoret
    •  & R. J. Schoelkopf
  2. INRIA Paris-Rocquencourt, Domaine de Voluceau, BP 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, France

    • M. Mirrahimi


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L.S. and A.P. performed the experiment and analysed the data. Z.L. and M.M. provided theoretical support. B.V. and G.K. provided further experimental contributions. K.M.S., A.N., M.H. and S.S. contributed to the double-pumped Josephson bifurcation amplifier under the supervision of M.H.D. J.B. and L.F. fabricated the device. R.J.S. designed and supervised the project. L.S., A.P., L.F. and R.J.S. wrote the manuscript with feedback from all authors.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to L. Sun or R. J. Schoelkopf.

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