Letter

Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance

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Accepted:
Published online:

Abstract

The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet’s history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks1,2), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

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Acknowledgements

D.B. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation; Y.R. acknowledges support from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche. This work benefitted from discussions with S. Karato, G. Hirth, N. Coltice and B. J. Foley.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8109, USA

    • David Bercovici
  2. Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, CNRS, ENS-Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France

    • Yanick Ricard

Authors

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Contributions

D.B. and Y.R. conceived the physical and mathematical model together. D.B. developed and deployed the computational model and was the lead author for the paper.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to David Bercovici.

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