a, Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy was used to quantify nuclear translocation of NF-κB Rel A (green) and IRF3 (red) as a consequence of activation. Nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios of immunostaining were measured at single cell level by quantitation of NF-κB or IRF3 signal intensities inside and outside the nucleus (blue DAPI) as described in methods. b, Data for 500 single cell measurements are shown for unstimulated MDM and MDM stimulated for 2 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 ng ml−1), or infected with wild-type (WT) HIV-1 or N74D or P90A CA mutants. Red lines represent the mean of each data set. * represent statistically significant differences between data sets (P < 0.01, t-test), ns represents non-significant differences (P > 0.05, t-test).