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Filamentous bacteria transport electrons over centimetre distances

Abstract

Oxygen consumption in marine sediments is often coupled to the oxidation of sulphide generated by degradation of organic matter in deeper, oxygen-free layers. Geochemical observations have shown that this coupling can be mediated by electric currents carried by unidentified electron transporters across centimetre-wide zones. Here we present evidence that the native conductors are long, filamentous bacteria. They abounded in sediment zones with electric currents and along their length they contained strings with distinct properties in accordance with a function as electron transporters. Living, electrical cables add a new dimension to the understanding of interactions in nature and may find use in technology development.

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Figure 1: Filamentous Desulfobulbaceae in current-producing sediments.
Figure 2: Biogeochemical impacts of filament cutting.
Figure 3: Biogeochemical effects of filter pore size.
Figure 4: Effect of layer of glass beads intercalated in the sediment.
Figure 5: AFM, SEM, TEM and EFM micrographs of the filamentous Desulfobulbaceae.

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Primary accessions

GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ

Data deposits

All sequences are deposited in GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ under accession numbers JX091023JX091073.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank P. G. Sørensen and L. B. Pedersen for construction of microsensors. Thanks to K. E. Thomsen for operating the TEM. B. B. Jørgensen is thanked for his general support. This research was financially supported by the European Research Council (L.P.N.), the Danish National Research Foundation (N.R.-P., C.P., K.U.K., L.S., M.D.), the Danish Council for Independent Research | Natural Sciences (FNU) (L.P.N.), the German Max Planck Society (N.R.-P., C.P., K.U.K., L.S.) and the Villum Foundation (M.D.).

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Contributions

This study was conceived by L.P.N., N.R.-P. and A.S. Experimental work: C.P. FISH and molecular phylogeny: S.L. Single-cell identification: K.U.K. and L.S. AFM: R.L.M., J.S. and M.D. SEM and EFM: J.S., M.D. and F.B. TEM: L.P.N. and J.S. Conductivity measurements using nanofabricated electro discs: J.S., Y.A.G., M.Y.E.-N., K.M.L. and C.P. All authors contributed to discussions of the data and preparation of the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Nils Risgaard-Petersen or Lars Peter Nielsen.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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This file contains Supplementary Methods, Supplementary Figure 1, Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary References. (PDF 452 kb)

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Pfeffer, C., Larsen, S., Song, J. et al. Filamentous bacteria transport electrons over centimetre distances. Nature 491, 218–221 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11586

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