Letter | Published:

Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a spin qubit

Nature volume 490, pages 380383 (18 October 2012) | Download Citation

Abstract

Electron spins trapped in quantum dots have been proposed as basic building blocks of a future quantum processor1,2,3. Although fast, 180-picosecond, two-quantum-bit (two-qubit) operations can be realized using nearest-neighbour exchange coupling4, a scalable, spin-based quantum computing architecture will almost certainly require long-range qubit interactions. Circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) allows spatially separated superconducting qubits to interact via a superconducting microwave cavity that acts as a ‘quantum bus’, making possible two-qubit entanglement and the implementation of simple quantum algorithms5,6,7. Here we combine the cQED architecture with spin qubits by coupling an indium arsenide nanowire double quantum dot to a superconducting cavity8,9. The architecture allows us to achieve a charge–cavity coupling rate of about 30 megahertz, consistent with coupling rates obtained in gallium arsenide quantum dots10. Furthermore, the strong spin–orbit interaction of indium arsenide allows us to drive spin rotations electrically with a local gate electrode, and the charge–cavity interaction provides a measurement of the resulting spin dynamics. Our results demonstrate how the cQED architecture can be used as a sensitive probe of single-spin physics and that a spin–cavity coupling rate of about one megahertz is feasible, presenting the possibility of long-range spin coupling via superconducting microwave cavities.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    & Quantum computation with quantum dots. Phys. Rev. A 57, 120–126 (1998)

  2. 2.

    et al. Driven coherent oscillations of a single electron spin in a quantum dot. Nature 442, 766–771 (2006)

  3. 3.

    , , , & Spins in few-electron quantum dots. Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1217–1265 (2007)

  4. 4.

    et al. Coherent manipulation of coupled electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots. Science 309, 2180–2184 (2005)

  5. 5.

    et al. Strong coupling of a single photon to a superconducting qubit using circuit quantum electrodynamics. Nature 431, 162–167 (2004)

  6. 6.

    et al. Realization of three-qubit quantum error correction with superconducting circuits. Nature 482, 382–385 (2012)

  7. 7.

    , & Coherent quantum state storage and transfer between two phase qubits via a resonant cavity. Nature 449, 438–442 (2007)

  8. 8.

    , , & Spin-orbit qubit in a semiconductor nanowire. Nature 468, 1084–1087 (2010)

  9. 9.

    , , & Field tuning the g factor in InAs nanowire double quantum dots. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 176811 (2011)

  10. 10.

    et al. Dipole coupling of a double quantum dot to a microwave resonator. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 046807 (2012)

  11. 11.

    et al. Electrons surfing on a sound wave as a platform for quantum optics with flying electrons. Nature 477, 435–438 (2011)

  12. 12.

    et al. On-demand single-electron transfer between distant quantum dots. Nature 477, 439–442 (2011)

  13. 13.

    , , & Efficient multiqubit entanglement via a spin bus. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230503 (2007)

  14. 14.

    Cavity QED based on collective magnetic dipole coupling: spin ensembles as hybrid two-level systems. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083602 (2009)

  15. 15.

    et al. High-cooperativity coupling of electron-spin ensembles to superconducting cavities. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 140501 (2010)

  16. 16.

    et al. Hybrid quantum circuit with a superconducting qubit coupled to a spin ensemble. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 220501 (2011)

  17. 17.

    et al. Cavity QED with magnetically coupled collective spin states. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 060502 (2011)

  18. 18.

    , & Spin dynamics in InAs nanowire quantum dots coupled to a transmission line. Phys. Rev. B 77, 045434 (2008)

  19. 19.

    , & Electric-dipole-induced spin resonance in quantum dots. Phys. Rev. B 74, 165319 (2006)

  20. 20.

    , , , & Direct measurement of the spin-orbit interaction in a two-electron InAs nanowire quantum dot. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266801 (2007)

  21. 21.

    , , , & Cavity quantum electrodynamics for superconducting electrical circuits: an architecture for quantum computation. Phys. Rev. A 69, 062320 (2004)

  22. 22.

    et al. Coupling a quantum dot, fermionic leads, and a microwave cavity on a chip. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 256804 (2011)

  23. 23.

    , , & Introduction of a dc bias into a high-Q superconducting microwave cavity. Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 132509 (2011)

  24. 24.

    & Comparison of quantum and semiclassical radiation theories with application to the beam maser. Proc. IEEE 51, 89–109 (1963)

  25. 25.

    et al. Resolving photon number states in a superconducting circuit. Nature 445, 515–518 (2007)

  26. 26.

    , , & Current rectification by Pauli exclusion in a weakly coupled double quantum dot system. Science 297, 1313–1317 (2002)

  27. 27.

    et al. Charge and spin state readout of a double quantum dot coupled to a resonator. Nano Lett. 10, 2789–2793 (2010)

  28. 28.

    et al. Triplet-singlet spin relaxation via nuclei in a double quantum dot. Nature 435, 925–928 (2005)

  29. 29.

    , & Strong coupling of a spin qubit to a superconducting stripline cavity. Phys. Rev. B 86, 035314 (2012)

  30. 30.

    , & Strong spin-orbit interaction and helical hole states in Ge/Si nanowires. Phys. Rev. B 84, 195314 (2011)

Download references

Acknowledgements

Research at Princeton University was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, US Army Research Office grant W911NF-08-1-0189, DARPA QuEST award HR0011-09-1-0007 and the US National Science Foundation through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (DMR-0819860) and CAREER award DMR-0846341. J.M.T. acknowledges support from ARO MURI award W911NF-09-1-0406.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA

    • K. D. Petersson
    • , L. W. McFaul
    • , M. D. Schroer
    • , M. Jung
    •  & J. R. Petta
  2. Joint Quantum Institute/NIST, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA

    • J. M. Taylor
  3. Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA

    • A. A. Houck
  4. Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA

    • J. R. Petta

Authors

  1. Search for K. D. Petersson in:

  2. Search for L. W. McFaul in:

  3. Search for M. D. Schroer in:

  4. Search for M. Jung in:

  5. Search for J. M. Taylor in:

  6. Search for A. A. Houck in:

  7. Search for J. R. Petta in:

Contributions

K.D.P. fabricated the sample and performed the measurements. K.D.P., L.W.M. and A.A.H. developed the resonator fabrication and measurement processes. K.D.P., M.D.S. and M.J. developed the nanowire device fabrication processes. M.D.S. grew the nanowires. J.M.T. developed the theory for the experiment. K.D.P. and J.R.P. wrote the paper with input from the other authors. J.R.P. planned the experiment.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. R. Petta.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Information

    This file contains Supplementary Text and Data, Supplementary Figures 1-6 and Supplementary References.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11559

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Newsletter Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing