A roadmap for graphene

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Abstract

Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in research on graphene (the first two-dimensional atomic crystal) as well as a significant advance in the mass production of this material. This one-atom-thick fabric of carbon uniquely combines extreme mechanical strength, exceptionally high electronic and thermal conductivities, impermeability to gases, as well as many other supreme properties, all of which make it highly attractive for numerous applications. Here we review recent progress in graphene research and in the development of production methods, and critically analyse the feasibility of various graphene applications.

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Figure 1
Figure 2: Graphene-based display and electronic devices.
Figure 3: Graphene-based photonics applications.
Figure 4: In a supercapacitor device two high-surface-area graphene-based electrodes (blue and purple hexagonal planes) are separated by a membrane (yellow).
Figure 5: Manipulating the hydrophilic–lipophilic properties of graphene (blue hexagonal planes) through chemical modification would allow interactions with biological membranes (purple-white double layer), such as drug delivery into the interior of a cell (blue region).

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the graphene community for years of intensive research and discussions. In particular, A. Geim, F. Bonaccorso, I. Kinloch, R. J. Young, R. Dryfe, A. Tzalenchuk, D. Clarke, J. Kinaret and L. Eaves have commented on this paper. K.S.N. and V.I.F. acknowledge the EC Supporting Coordinated Action “Graphene-CA” Flagship Preparatory Action for financial support.

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All authors contributed equally to the writing of the paper.

Correspondence to K. S. Novoselov.

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Novoselov, K., Fal′ko, V., Colombo, L. et al. A roadmap for graphene. Nature 490, 192–200 (2012) doi:10.1038/nature11458

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