Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in research on graphene (the first two-dimensional atomic crystal) as well as a significant advance in the mass production of this material. This one-atom-thick fabric of carbon uniquely combines extreme mechanical strength, exceptionally high electronic and thermal conductivities, impermeability to gases, as well as many other supreme properties, all of which make it highly attractive for numerous applications. Here we review recent progress in graphene research and in the development of production methods, and critically analyse the feasibility of various graphene applications.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Geim, A. K. & Novoselov, K. S. The rise of graphene. Nature Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007)
Geim, A. K. Graphene: status and prospects. Science 324, 1530–1534 (2009)
Mayorov, A. S. et al. Micrometer-scale ballistic transport in encapsulated graphene at room temperature. Nano Lett. 11, 2396–2399 (2011)
Morozov, S. V. et al. Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 016602 (2008)
Lee, C., Wei, X. D., Kysar, J. W. & Hone, J. Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Science 321, 385–388 (2008)
Liu, F., Ming, P. M. & Li, J. Ab initio calculation of ideal strength and phonon instability of graphene under tension. Phys. Rev. B 76, 064120 (2007)
Balandin, A. A. Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials. Nature Mater. 10, 569–581 (2011)
Nair, R. R. et al. Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene. Science 320, 1308 (2008)
Bunch, J. S. et al. Impermeable atomic membranes from graphene sheets. Nano Lett. 8, 2458–2462 (2008)
Moser, J., Barreiro, A. & Bachtold, A. Current-induced cleaning of graphene. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 163513 (2007)
Elias, D. C. et al. Control of graphene’s properties by reversible hydrogenation: evidence for graphane. Science 323, 610–613 (2009)
Loh, K. P., Bao, Q. L., Ang, P. K. & Yang, J. X. The chemistry of graphene. J. Mater. Chem. 20, 2277–2289 (2010)
Nair, R. R. et al. Fluorographene: a two-dimensional counterpart of Teflon. Small 6, 2877–2884 (2010)
Novoselov, K. S. et al. Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306, 666–669 (2004)In this paper a micromechanical cleavage method was used to obtain high-quality sheets of graphene and its transport and switching properties were studied.
Dean, C. R. et al. Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics. Nature Nanotechnol. 5, 722–726 (2010)
Novoselov, K. S. et al. Two-dimensional atomic crystals. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 10451–10453 (2005)This paper demonstrates that a number of 2D atomic crystals can be obtained in a free-standing state and used in various electronic devices.
Geim, A. K. Nobel lecture. Random walk to graphene. Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 851–862 (2011)
Novoselov, K. S. Nobel lecture. Graphene: materials in the flatland. Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 837–849 (2011)
Blake, P. et al. Graphene-based liquid crystal device. Nano Lett. 8, 1704–1708 (2008)
Hernandez, Y. et al. High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. Nature Nanotechnol. 3, 563–568 (2008)
Coleman, J. N. et al. Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials. Science 331, 568–571 (2011)
Dreyer, D. R., Ruoff, R. S. & Bielawski, C. W. From conception to realization: an historical account of graphene and some perspectives for its future. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9336–9344 (2010)
Schniepp, H. C. et al. Functionalized single graphene sheets derived from splitting graphite oxide. J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 8535–8539 (2006)
Jiao, L. Y., Zhang, L., Wang, X. R., Diankov, G. & Dai, H. J. Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes. Nature 458, 877–880 (2009)
Kosynkin, D. V. et al. Longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes to form graphene nanoribbons. Nature 458, 872–876 (2009)
Segal, M. Selling graphene by the ton. Nature Nanotechnol. 4, 612–614 (2009)
Bonaccorso, F., Sun, Z., Hasan, T. & Ferrari, A. C. Graphene photonics and optoelectronics. Nature Photon. 4, 611–622 (2010)
Li, X. S. et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009)This paper indroduces CVD growth of graphene on copper, demonstrating the first large-area reproducible monolayer growth process.
Bae, S. et al. Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nature Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010)
Forbeaux, I., Themlin, J. M. & Debever, J. M. Heteroepitaxial graphite on 6H-SiC(0001): interface formation through conduction-band electronic structure. Phys. Rev. B 58, 16396–16406 (1998)
Berger, C. et al. Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics. J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912–19916 (2004)
Ohta, T., Bostwick, A., Seyller, T., Horn, K. & Rotenberg, E. Controlling the electronic structure of bilayer graphene. Science 313, 951–954 (2006)
Virojanadara, C. et al. Homogeneous large-area graphene layer growth on 6H-SiC(0001). Phys. Rev. B 78, 245403 (2008)
Lin, Y. M. et al. 100-GHz transistors from wafer-scale epitaxial graphene. Science 327, 662 (2010)This paper discusses the use of graphene epitaxially grown on SiC for high-frequency electronics.
Tzalenchuk, A. et al. Towards a quantum resistance standard based on epitaxial graphene. Nature Nanotechnol. 5, 186–189 (2010)
Cai, J. M. et al. Atomically precise bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanoribbons. Nature 466, 470–473 (2010)
Hackley, J., Ali, D., DiPasquale, J., Demaree, J. D. & Richardson, C. J. K. Graphitic carbon growth on Si(111) using solid source molecular beam epitaxy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 133114 (2009)
Dhar, S. et al. A new route to graphene layers by selective laser ablation. AIP Adv. 1, 022109 (2011)
Han, T. H. et al. Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode. Nature Photon. 6, 105–110 (2012)
Liao, L. et al. High-speed graphene transistors with a self-aligned nanowire gate. Nature 467, 305–308 (2010)
Liao, L. et al. Sub-100 nm channel length graphene transistors. Nano Lett. 10, 3952–3956 (2010)
Han, S. J. et al. High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier. Nano Lett. 11, 3690–3693 (2011)
Meric, I. et al. Channel length scaling in graphene field-effect transistors studied with pulsed current-voltage measurements. Nano Lett. 11, 1093–1097 (2011)
Meric, I. et al. High-Frequency Performance of Graphene Field Effect Transistors with Saturating IV-characteristics 15–18 (IEEE Electron Devices Society, 2011)
Han, M. Y., Ozyilmaz, B., Zhang, Y. B. & Kim, P. Energy band-gap engineering of graphene nanoribbons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 206805 (2007)
Ponomarenko, L. A. et al. Chaotic Dirac billiard in graphene quantum dots. Science 320, 356–358 (2008)
Stampfer, C. et al. Tunable graphene single electron transistor. Nano Lett. 8, 2378–2383 (2008)
Oostinga, J. B., Heersche, H. B., Liu, X. L., Morpurgo, A. F. & Vandersypen, L. M. K. Gate-induced insulating state in bilayer graphene devices. Nature Mater. 7, 151–157 (2008)
Kim, K., Choi, J. Y., Kim, T., Cho, S. H. & Chung, H. J. A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices. Nature 479, 338–344 (2011)
Schwierz, F. Graphene transistors. Nature Nanotechnol. 5, 487–496 (2010)
Britnell, L. et al. Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures. Science 335, 947–950 (2012)In this paper a new concept of vertical tunnelling transistors based on heterostructures assembled from 2D atomic crystals has been demonstrated.
Li, Z. Q. et al. Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy. Nature Phys. 4, 532–535 (2008)
Ishibashi, T. et al. InP/InGaAs uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes. IEICE Trans. Electron. E 83C, 938–949 (2000)
Ishikawa, Y. & Wada, K. Near-infrared Ge photodiodes for Si photonics: operation frequency and an approach for the future. IEEE Photon. J. 2, 306–320 (2010)
Xia, F. N., Mueller, T., Lin, Y. M., Valdes-Garcia, A. & Avouris, P. Ultrafast graphene photodetector. Nature Nanotechnol. 4, 839–843 (2009)This paper demonstrates the performance of planar graphene structures with built-in p–n junctions for ultrafast photodetection applications.
Meric, I. et al. Current saturation in zero-bandgap, topgated graphene field-effect transistors. Nature Nanotechnol. 3, 654–659 (2008)
Xia, F. N. et al. Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor. Nano Lett. 9, 1039–1044 (2009)
Mueller, T., Xia, F. N. A. & Avouris, P. Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications. Nature Photon. 4, 297–301 (2010)
Echtermeyer, T. J. et al. Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene. Nature Commun. 2, 458 (2011)
Reed, G. T., Mashanovich, G., Gardes, F. Y. & Thomson, D. J. Silicon optical modulators. Nature Photon. 4, 518–526 (2010)
Liao, L. et al. 40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications. Electron. Lett. 43, 1196–1197 (2007)
Li, G. L. et al. 25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning. Opt. Express 19, 20435–20443 (2011)
Tang, Y. B. et al. 50 Gb/s hybrid silicon traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator. Opt. Express 19, 5811–5816 (2011)
Wang, F. et al. Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene. Science 320, 206–209 (2008)
Liu, M. et al. A graphene-based broadband optical modulator. Nature 474, 64–67 (2011)
Sensale-Rodriguez, B. et al. Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011)
Liu, X., Du, D. & Mourou, G. Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997)
Drexler, W. et al. In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. Opt. Lett. 24, 1221–1223 (1999)
Keller, U. et al. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996)
Bao, Q. L. et al. Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers. Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009)
Sun, Z. P. et al. Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser. ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010)
Zhang, H. et al. Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 111112 (2010)
Xu, J. L. et al. Performance of large-area few-layer graphene saturable absorber in femtosecond bulk laser. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261107 (2011)
Tan, W. D. et al. Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 031106 (2010)
De Souza, E. A., Nuss, M. C., Knox, W. H. & Miller, D. A. B. Wavelength-division multiplexing with femtosecond pulses. Opt. Lett. 20, 1166–1168 (1995)
Koch, B. R. et al. Mode locked and distributed feedback silicon evanescent lasers. Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 355–369 (2009)
Rana, F. Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators. IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7, 91–99 (2008)
Ramakrishnan, G., Chakkittakandy, R. & Planken, P. C. M. Terahertz generation from graphite. Opt. Express 17, 16092–16099 (2009)
Prechtel, L. et al. Time-resolved ultrafast photocurrents and terahertz generation in freely suspended graphene. Nature Commun. 3, 646 (2012)
Bao, Q. et al. Broadband graphene polarizer. Nature Photon. 5, 411–415 (2011)
Bi, L. et al. On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators. Nature Photon. 5, 758–762 (2011)
Crassee, I. et al. Giant Faraday rotation in single- and multilayer graphene. Nature Phys. 7, 48–51 (2011)
Young, R. J., Kinloch, I. A., Gong, L. & Novoselov, K. S. The mechanics of graphene nanocomposites: a review. Compos. Sci. Technol. 72, 1459–1476 (2012)
Wang, X., Zhi, L. J. & Mullen, K. Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Lett. 8, 323–327 (2008)This described the first demonstration of the use of graphene (obtained via reduced graphene oxide method) as a transparent electrode in solar cells.
Li, S. S., Tu, K. H., Lin, C. C., Chen, C. W. & Chhowalla, M. Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole transport layer in polymer solar cells. ACS Nano 4, 3169–3174 (2010)
Yang, S. B., Feng, X. L., Ivanovici, S. & Mullen, K. Fabrication of graphene-encapsulated oxide nanoparticles: towards high-performance anode materials for lithium storage. Angew. Chem. Int. Edn 49, 8408–8411 (2010)
Yoo, E. et al. Large reversible Li storage of graphene nanosheet families for use in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Nano Lett. 8, 2277–2282 (2008)
Simon, P. & Gogotsi, Y. Materials for electrochemical capacitors. Nature Mater. 7, 845–854 (2008)
Stoller, M. D., Park, S. J., Zhu, Y. W., An, J. H. & Ruoff, R. S. Graphene-based ultracapacitors. Nano Lett. 8, 3498–3502 (2008)This paper is the first demonstration of the use of graphene in a supercapacitor application.
Yoo, E. et al. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of Pt subnanoclusters on graphene nanosheet surface. Nano Lett. 9, 2255–2259 (2009)
Giesbers, A. J. M. et al. Quantum resistance metrology in graphene. Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 222109 (2008)
Nayak, T. R. et al. Graphene for controlled and accelerated osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. ACS Nano 5, 4670–4678 (2011)
Nair, R. R. et al. Graphene as a transparent conductive support for studying biological molecules by transmission electron microscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 153102 (2010)
Kuila, T. et al. Recent advances in graphene-based biosensors. Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 4637–4648 (2011)
Sanchez, V. C., Jachak, A., Hurt, R. H. & Kane, A. B. Biological interactions of graphene-family nanomaterials: an interdisciplinary review. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 25, 15–34 (2012)
Yang, K. et al. Graphene in mice: ultrahigh in vivo tumor uptake and efficient photothermal therapy. Nano Lett. 10, 3318–3323 (2010)
Nair, R. R., Wu, H. A., Jayaram, P. N., Grigorieva, I. V. & Geim, A. K. Unimpeded permeation of water through helium-leak-tight graphene-based membranes. Science 335, 442–444 (2012)
We are grateful to the graphene community for years of intensive research and discussions. In particular, A. Geim, F. Bonaccorso, I. Kinloch, R. J. Young, R. Dryfe, A. Tzalenchuk, D. Clarke, J. Kinaret and L. Eaves have commented on this paper. K.S.N. and V.I.F. acknowledge the EC Supporting Coordinated Action “Graphene-CA” Flagship Preparatory Action for financial support.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Novoselov, K., Fal′ko, V., Colombo, L. et al. A roadmap for graphene. Nature 490, 192–200 (2012) doi:10.1038/nature11458
Materials Chemistry and Physics (2020)
Monte Carlo study of an Ising nanoisland with bilayer graphene-like structure in a longitudinal magnetic field
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids (2020)
Understanding asymmetric transfer characteristics and hysteresis behaviors in graphene devices under different chemical atmospheres
Monitoring water and oxygen splitting at graphene edges and folds: Insights into the lubricity of graphitic materials