Letter

Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

Received:
Accepted:
Published online:

Abstract

The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon1,2,3. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment and other environmental stresses4,5,6,7,8,9. As pressures mount, it is vital to know whether existing reserves can sustain their biodiversity. A critical constraint in addressing this question has been that data describing a broad array of biodiversity groups have been unavailable for a sufficiently large and representative sample of reserves. Here we present a uniquely comprehensive data set on changes over the past 20 to 30 years in 31 functional groups of species and 21 potential drivers of environmental change, for 60 protected areas stratified across the world’s major tropical regions. Our analysis reveals great variation in reserve ‘health’: about half of all reserves have been effective or performed passably, but the rest are experiencing an erosion of biodiversity that is often alarmingly widespread taxonomically and functionally. Habitat disruption, hunting and forest-product exploitation were the strongest predictors of declining reserve health. Crucially, environmental changes immediately outside reserves seemed nearly as important as those inside in determining their ecological fate, with changes inside reserves strongly mirroring those occurring around them. These findings suggest that tropical protected areas are often intimately linked ecologically to their surrounding habitats, and that a failure to stem broad-scale loss and degradation of such habitats could sharply increase the likelihood of serious biodiversity declines.

  • Subscribe to Nature for full access:

    $199

    Subscribe

Additional access options:

Already a subscriber?  Log in  now or  Register  for online access.

Change history

  • Corrected online 12 September 2012

    Axis labelling in Fig. 1 and a typo in the Fig. 2 legend were corrected.

References

  1. 1.

    & Biodiversity: extinction by numbers. Nature 403, 843–845 (2000)

  2. 2.

    , & Tropical turmoil—a biodiversity tragedy in progress. Front. Ecol. Environ 7, 79–87 (2009)

  3. 3.

    et al. Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity. Nature 478, 378–381 (2011)

  4. 4.

    , , & Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science 291, 125–128 (2001)

  5. 5.

    et al. Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo. Science 303, 1000–1003 (2004)

  6. 6.

    , , & Increasing isolation of protected areas in tropical forests over the past twenty years. Ecol. Appl. 15, 19–26 (2005)

  7. 7.

    Protected areas: A prism for a changing world. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21, 329–333 (2006)

  8. 8.

    , , & in Principles of Conservation Biology (eds , & ) (Sinauer, 2006)

  9. 9.

    , & On the protection of “protected areas”. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 6673–6678 (2008)

  10. 10.

    & Expansion of the global terrestrial protected area system. Biol. Conserv. 142, 2166–2174 (2009)

  11. 11.

    et al. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon. Science 310, 480–482 (2005)

  12. 12.

    , , & Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves. Ecol. Appl. 17, 1259–1266 (2007)

  13. 13.

    , & Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon. PLoS ONE 4, e5014 (2009)

  14. 14.

    , & Detecting anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21, 227–229 (2006)

  15. 15.

    & Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands. Ecol. Appl. 17, 974–988 (2007)

  16. 16.

    et al. Biomass collapse in Amazonian forest fragments. Science 278, 1117–1118 (1997)

  17. 17.

    & Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science 280, 2126–2128 (1998)

  18. 18.

    et al. Ecological meltdown in predator-free forest fragments. Science 294, 1923–1926 (2001)

  19. 19.

    et al. The fate of Amazonian forest fragments: a 32-year investigation. Biol. Conserv. 144, 56–67 (2011)

  20. 20.

    , & Time lag between deforestation and bird extinction in tropical forest fragments. Conserv. Biol. 13, 1140–1150 (1999)

  21. 21.

    Why we need megareserves in Amazonia. Conserv. Biol. 19, 728–733 (2005)

  22. 22.

    , & Size-dependent resistance of protected areas to land-use change. Proc. R. Soc. B 275, 1297–1304 (2008)

  23. 23.

    et al. Trophic downgrading of Planet Earth. Science 333, 301–306 (2011)

  24. 24.

    & Integrating protected area management with local needs and aspirations. Ambio 33, 513–519 (2004)

  25. 25.

    et al. Can Protected Areas Contribute to Poverty Reduction? Opportunities and Limitations (IUCN, 2004)

  26. 26.

    & The payoff of conservation investments in tropical countryside. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 19342–19347 (2008)

  27. 27.

    et al. Community-managed forests and protected areas: an assessment of their conservation effectiveness across the tropics. For. Ecol. Manage. 256, 6–17 (2012)

  28. 28.

    et al. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427, 145–148 (2004)

  29. 29.

    , , & Climate change, elevational range shifts, and bird extinctions. Conserv. Biol. 22, 140–150 (2008)

  30. 30.

    et al. Targeted protection and restoration to conserve tropical biodiversity in a warming world. Glob. Change Biol. 17, 186–193 (2011)

Download references

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by James Cook University, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, an Australian Laureate Fellowship (to W.F.L.) and NSF grant RCN-0741956. We thank A. Bruner, R. A. Butler, G. R. Clements, R. Condit, C. N. Cook, S. Goosem, J. Geldmann, L. Joppa, S. L. Pimm and O. Venter for comments.

Author information

Author notes

    • Elisabeth Kalko
    • , Samuel Soares de Almeida
    • , Navjot Sodhi
    •  & Pralad Yonzon

    Deceased.

Affiliations

  1. Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science (TESS) and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4878, Australia.

    • William F. Laurance
    • , Sean P. Sloan
    • , Susan G. Laurance
    • , Mason Campbell
    • , David Edwards
    • , Felicity Edwards
    • , Willis Logsdon
    •  & Christiane Roetgers
  2. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancón, Panama.

    • William F. Laurance
    • , D. Carolina Useche
    • , Julio Rendeiro
    • , Margareta Kalka
    •  & S. Joseph Wright
  3. School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.

    • Corey J. A. Bradshaw
  4. Stirling University, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK.

    • Kate Abernethy
    •  & Fiona Maisels
  5. Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA.

    • Patricia Alvarez
    • , Nigel Pitman
    • , Thomas Struhsaker
    • , John Terborgh
    •  & Connie J. Clark
  6. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Morelia, Mexico.

    • Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez
    • , Julieta Benítez-Malvido
    •  & Mauricio Quesada
  7. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond TW9 3AB, UK.

    • Peter Ashton
  8. World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Washington DC 20037, USA.

    • Allard Blom
    • , Richard Carroll
    •  & Eric Dinerstein
  9. University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon.

    • Kadiri S. Bobo
  10. Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan 666303, People’s Republic of China.

    • Charles H. Cannon
    • , Min Cao
    • , Rhett Harrison
    •  & Chen Jin
  11. McGill University, Montreal H3A 2T7, Canada.

    • Colin Chapman
    •  & Philippe Auzel
  12. Estación de Biologia Tropical Los Tuxtlas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Veracruz 95701, Mexico.

    • Rosamond Coates
    •  & Alejandro Estrada
  13. Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

    • Marina Cords
    •  & Paige West
  14. Nordic Foundation for Development and Ecology, DK-1159 Copenhagen, Denmark.

    • Finn Danielsen
  15. Bart De Dijn Environmental Consultancy, Paramaribo, Suriname.

    • Bart De Dijn
  16. Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199, USA.

    • Maureen A. Donnelly
  17. Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg 35043, Germany.

    • Nina Farwig
  18. California State University, Fullerton, California 92834, USA.

    • Peter Fashing
  19. Museum Natural d'Histoire Naturelle, 91800 Brunoy, France.

    • Pierre-Michel Forget
    •  & François Feer
  20. US Geological Survey, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20013, USA.

    • Mercedes Foster
  21. King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10150, Thailand.

    • George Gale
    •  & Tommaso Savini
  22. Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland EH3 5LR, UK.

    • David Harris
  23. Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    • John Hart
  24. Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.

    • Sarah Karpanty
  25. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20013, USA.

    • W. John Kress
    •  & Louise Emmons
  26. Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Bangalore 560064, India.

    • Jagdish Krishnaswamy
  27. University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.

    • Jon Lovett
  28. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Amazonas 69011-970, Brazil.

    • William Magnusson
    •  & Tania Sanaiotti
  29. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York 10460, USA.

    • Fiona Maisels
    • , Hugo Rainey
    • , Stephen Blake
    • , Emma Stokes
    • , William Weber
    •  & David Wilkie
  30. University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK.

    • Andrew R. Marshall
    •  & Jane Hill
  31. La Selva Biological Station, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

    • Deedra McClearn
  32. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore 570 002, India.

    • Divya Mudappa
  33. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    • Martin R. Nielsen
  34. James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.

    • Richard Pearson
    • , Robert Congdon
    • , Betsy Jackes
    •  & Stephen Williams
  35. Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

    • Jan van der Ploeg
    •  & Merlijn van Weerd
  36. Wildlife Conservation Society, Kampala, Uganda.

    • Andrew Plumptre
  37. Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, Massachusetts 02540, USA.

    • John Poulsen
  38. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.

    • Douglas Robinson
    •  & Duncan Thomas
  39. Museo delle Scienze, 38122 Trento, Italy.

    • Francesco Rovero
  40. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    • Frederick Scatena
    •  & Daniel Janzen
  41. University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

    • Christian Schulze
  42. Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Kabale, Uganda.

    • Douglas Sheil
  43. University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.

    • Robert Timm
  44. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.

    • J. Nicolas Urbina-Cardona
  45. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India.

    • Karthikeyan Vasudevan
  46. Unidad de Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.

    • Juan Carlos Arias-G.
  47. Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    • Luzmila Arroyo
  48. Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA.

    • Mark Ashton
    •  & David Watts
  49. Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation, Kabale, Uganda.

    • Dennis Babaasa
  50. Budongo Conservation Field Station, Masindi, Uganda.

    • Fred Babweteera
  51. Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia.

    • Patrick Baker
  52. Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

    • Olaf Banki
  53. Finding Species, Takoma Park, Maryland 20912, USA.

    • Margot Bass
  54. University of Kent, Kent CT2 7NZ, UK.

    • Inogwabini Bila-Isia
  55. Mahidol University Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand.

    • Warren Brockelman
  56. University of Puerto Rico, San Juan 00936, Puerto Rico.

    • Nicholas Brokaw
  57. University Koblenz-Landau, D-76829 Landau, Germany.

    • Carsten A. Brühl
  58. Department of National Parks, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

    • Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin
  59. Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Tapei 10066, Taiwan.

    • Jung-Tai Chao
  60. Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.

    • Jerome Chave
  61. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bangalore 560070, India.

    • Ravi Chellam
  62. Universidad Central de Venezuela, Aragua, Venezuela.

    • José Clavijo
  63. National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543.

    • Richard Corlett
    • , Enoka Kudavidanage
    •  & Navjot Sodhi
  64. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

    • H. S. Dattaraja
  65. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), New Delhi 110003, India.

    • Chittaranjan Dave
  66. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Surrey GU7 1XR, UK.

    • Glyn Davies
  67. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação de Biodiversidade, Atibaia, São Paulo 12952-011, Brazil.

    • Beatriz de Mello Beisiegel
  68. O Conselho Regional de Engenhara, Arquitetura e Agronomia do Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil.

    • Rosa de Nazaré Paes da Silva
  69. University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.

    • Anthony Di Fiore
  70. National Museum of the Philippines, Manila, Phillipines.

    • Arvin Diesmos
  71. Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

    • Rodolfo Dirzo
  72. State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA.

    • Diane Doran-Sheehy
  73. University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.

    • Mitchell Eaton
  74. Wildlife Conservation Society, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    • Corneille Ewango
  75. University of Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada.

    • Linda Fedigan
  76. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

    • Barbara Fruth
    •  & Martin Surbeck
  77. Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 07043, USA.

    • Jacalyn Giacalone Willis
  78. University of California, San Diego, California 92093, USA.

    • Uromi Goodale
  79. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA.

    • Steven Goodman
  80. Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

    • Juan C. Guix
  81. Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis, Nairobi, Kenya.

    • Paul Guthiga
  82. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri 63166, USA.

    • William Haber
  83. University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

    • Keith Hamer
  84. Wild Chimpanzee Foundation, Abidjan 23, Cote d'Ivoire.

    • Ilka Herbinger
  85. Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, Zhaoqing, People’s Republic of China.

    • Zhongliang Huang
  86. Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan.

    • I Fang Sun
  87. Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, USA.

    • Kalan Ickes
  88. Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585, Japan.

    • Akira Itoh
  89. Instituto Florestal, São Paulo, São Paulo 02377-000, Brazil.

    • Natália Ivanauskas
  90. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, Texas 76107, USA.

    • John Janovec
    •  & Mathias Tobler
  91. South China Botanical Garden, Guangzhou 510650, People’s Republic of China.

    • Mo Jiangming
    •  & Lu Xiankai
  92. Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK.

    • Trevor Jones
  93. Fundación para la Conservación del Bosque Chiquitano, Bolivia.

    • Hermes Justiniano
  94. University of Ulm, 89069 Ulm, Germany.

    • Elisabeth Kalko
  95. Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.

    • Aventino Kasangaki
  96. Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia 22202, USA.

    • Timothy Killeen
  97. Society of Subtropical Ecology, Taipei, Taiwan.

    • Hen-biau King
  98. Royal Haskoning, Water and Ecology Group, Groningen, Netherlands.

    • Erik Klop
  99. Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    • Cheryl Knott
  100. Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    • Inza Koné
  101. Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

    • José Lahoz da Silva Ribeiro
  102. Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.

    • John Lattke
  103. The Bat Jungle, Monteverde, Costa Rica.

    • Richard Laval
  104. University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama 35899, USA.

    • Robert Lawton
  105. Boîte Postale 7847, Libreville, Gabon.

    • Miguel Leal
  106. 95 Warren Road, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA.

    • Mark Leighton
  107. Colección Ornitológica Phelps, Caracas, Venezuela.

    • Miguel Lentino
  108. Parque Estadual Horto Florestal, São Paulo, São Paulo 02377-000, Brazil.

    • Cristiane Leonel
  109. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sandy SG19 2DL, UK.

    • Jeremy Lindsell
  110. National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

    • Lee Ling-Ling
  111. University of Würzburg, Biocenter, D97074 Wuerzburg, Germany.

    • K. Eduard Linsenmair
  112. Organization for Tropical Studies, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA.

    • Elizabeth Losos
  113. USDA International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico 00926.

    • Ariel Lugo
  114. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

    • Jeremiah Lwanga
  115. Green Capacity Inc., New Florence, Pennsylvania 15944, USA.

    • Andrew L. Mack
    •  & Debra D. Wright
  116. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará 66040-170, Brazil.

    • Marlucia Martins
  117. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

    • W. Scott McGraw
  118. Wildlife Conservation Society, Flores, Guatemala.

    • Roan McNab
  119. Universidad Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará 66040-170, Brazil.

    • Luciano Montag
  120. Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    • Jo Myers Thompson
  121. Aarhus University, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark.

    • Jacob Nabe-Nielsen
  122. Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

    • Michiko Nakagawa
  123. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.

    • Sanjay Nepal
  124. Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242, USA.

    • Marilyn Norconk
  125. Institute of Entomology, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

    • Vojtech Novotny
  126. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    • Sean O'Donnell
  127. PNG Institute of Biological Research, Goroka, Papua New Guinea.

    • Muse Opiang
  128. University of Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname.

    • Paul Ouboter
  129. 113-3885 Richet Rd, Prince George, British Columbia V2K 2J2, Canada.

    • Kenneth Parker
  130. Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605-014, India.

    • N. Parthasarathy
  131. Fundação Florestal, São Paulo, São Paulo 02377-000, Brazil.

    • Kátia Pisciotta
  132. Research Centre for Biology, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia.

    • Dewi Prawiradilaga
  133. University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

    • Catherine Pringle
  134. Strix Wildlife Consultancy, Singapore.

    • Subaraj Rajathurai
  135. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901, USA.

    • Ulrich Reichard
  136. Zoological Society of Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.

    • Gay Reinartz
  137. Estación de Biologia Chamela, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Jalisco 48980, Mexico.

    • Katherine Renton
    •  & Jorge Vega Rivera
  138. Danum Valley Field Centre, Sabah, Malaysia.

    • Glen Reynolds
  139. Oxford University, Oxford BN26 5UX, UK.

    • Vernon Reynolds
  140. San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, USA.

    • Erin Riley
  141. Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany.

    • Mark-Oliver Rödel
  142. City University of New York, New York 10065, USA.

    • Jessica Rothman
  143. Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

    • Philip Round
  144. Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan.

    • Shoko Sakai
  145. Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Karlsruhe, Germany.

    • Gertrud Schaab
  146. National Zoological Park, Washington DC 20013, USA.

    • John Seidensticker
  147. Gola Forest Programme, Kenema, Sierra Leone.

    • Alhaji Siaka
  148. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27106, USA.

    • Miles R. Silman
  149. University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

    • Thomas B. Smith
    •  & Benjamin Wang
  150. Av. Maalhães Barata 376, Belém, Pará 66040-170, Brazil.

    • Samuel Soares de Almeida
  151. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA.

    • Craig Stanford
  152. Institute of Applied Ethnobotany, Pompano Beach, Florida 33069, USA.

    • Kristine Stewart
  153. Texas A & M University, Kingsville, Texas 78363, USA.

    • Kathryn E. Stoner
  154. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

    • Raman Sukumar
  155. Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen, Germany.

    • Teja Tscharntke
    •  & Matthias Waltert
  156. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bangui, Central African Republic.

    • Andrea Turkalo
  157. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India.

    • Govindaswamy Umapathy
  158. 701, Vesta B, Lodha Paradise, Thane, India.

    • Meena Venkataraman
  159. Paluma Environmental Education Centre, Paluma, Queensland 4816, Australia.

    • Linda Venn
  160. Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Venezuela.

    • Carlos Verea
  161. Embrapa Roraima, Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    • Carolina Volkmer de Castilho
  162. Treasure Valley Math and Science Center, Boise, Idaho 83714, USA.

    • David Whitacre
  163. Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA.

    • Ken Whitney
  164. Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA.

    • Patricia Wright
  165. Resources Himalaya Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal.

    • Pralad Yonzon
  166. Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    • Franky Zamzani

Authors

  1. Search for William F. Laurance in:

  2. Search for D. Carolina Useche in:

  3. Search for Julio Rendeiro in:

  4. Search for Margareta Kalka in:

  5. Search for Corey J. A. Bradshaw in:

  6. Search for Sean P. Sloan in:

  7. Search for Susan G. Laurance in:

  8. Search for Mason Campbell in:

  9. Search for Kate Abernethy in:

  10. Search for Patricia Alvarez in:

  11. Search for Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez in:

  12. Search for Peter Ashton in:

  13. Search for Julieta Benítez-Malvido in:

  14. Search for Allard Blom in:

  15. Search for Kadiri S. Bobo in:

  16. Search for Charles H. Cannon in:

  17. Search for Min Cao in:

  18. Search for Richard Carroll in:

  19. Search for Colin Chapman in:

  20. Search for Rosamond Coates in:

  21. Search for Marina Cords in:

  22. Search for Finn Danielsen in:

  23. Search for Bart De Dijn in:

  24. Search for Eric Dinerstein in:

  25. Search for Maureen A. Donnelly in:

  26. Search for David Edwards in:

  27. Search for Felicity Edwards in:

  28. Search for Nina Farwig in:

  29. Search for Peter Fashing in:

  30. Search for Pierre-Michel Forget in:

  31. Search for Mercedes Foster in:

  32. Search for George Gale in:

  33. Search for David Harris in:

  34. Search for Rhett Harrison in:

  35. Search for John Hart in:

  36. Search for Sarah Karpanty in:

  37. Search for W. John Kress in:

  38. Search for Jagdish Krishnaswamy in:

  39. Search for Willis Logsdon in:

  40. Search for Jon Lovett in:

  41. Search for William Magnusson in:

  42. Search for Fiona Maisels in:

  43. Search for Andrew R. Marshall in:

  44. Search for Deedra McClearn in:

  45. Search for Divya Mudappa in:

  46. Search for Martin R. Nielsen in:

  47. Search for Richard Pearson in:

  48. Search for Nigel Pitman in:

  49. Search for Jan van der Ploeg in:

  50. Search for Andrew Plumptre in:

  51. Search for John Poulsen in:

  52. Search for Mauricio Quesada in:

  53. Search for Hugo Rainey in:

  54. Search for Douglas Robinson in:

  55. Search for Christiane Roetgers in:

  56. Search for Francesco Rovero in:

  57. Search for Frederick Scatena in:

  58. Search for Christian Schulze in:

  59. Search for Douglas Sheil in:

  60. Search for Thomas Struhsaker in:

  61. Search for John Terborgh in:

  62. Search for Duncan Thomas in:

  63. Search for Robert Timm in:

  64. Search for J. Nicolas Urbina-Cardona in:

  65. Search for Karthikeyan Vasudevan in:

  66. Search for S. Joseph Wright in:

  67. Search for Juan Carlos Arias-G. in:

  68. Search for Luzmila Arroyo in:

  69. Search for Mark Ashton in:

  70. Search for Philippe Auzel in:

  71. Search for Dennis Babaasa in:

  72. Search for Fred Babweteera in:

  73. Search for Patrick Baker in:

  74. Search for Olaf Banki in:

  75. Search for Margot Bass in:

  76. Search for Inogwabini Bila-Isia in:

  77. Search for Stephen Blake in:

  78. Search for Warren Brockelman in:

  79. Search for Nicholas Brokaw in:

  80. Search for Carsten A. Brühl in:

  81. Search for Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin in:

  82. Search for Jung-Tai Chao in:

  83. Search for Jerome Chave in:

  84. Search for Ravi Chellam in:

  85. Search for Connie J. Clark in:

  86. Search for José Clavijo in:

  87. Search for Robert Congdon in:

  88. Search for Richard Corlett in:

  89. Search for H. S. Dattaraja in:

  90. Search for Chittaranjan Dave in:

  91. Search for Glyn Davies in:

  92. Search for Beatriz de Mello Beisiegel in:

  93. Search for Rosa de Nazaré Paes da Silva in:

  94. Search for Anthony Di Fiore in:

  95. Search for Arvin Diesmos in:

  96. Search for Rodolfo Dirzo in:

  97. Search for Diane Doran-Sheehy in:

  98. Search for Mitchell Eaton in:

  99. Search for Louise Emmons in:

  100. Search for Alejandro Estrada in:

  101. Search for Corneille Ewango in:

  102. Search for Linda Fedigan in:

  103. Search for François Feer in:

  104. Search for Barbara Fruth in:

  105. Search for Jacalyn Giacalone Willis in:

  106. Search for Uromi Goodale in:

  107. Search for Steven Goodman in:

  108. Search for Juan C. Guix in:

  109. Search for Paul Guthiga in:

  110. Search for William Haber in:

  111. Search for Keith Hamer in:

  112. Search for Ilka Herbinger in:

  113. Search for Jane Hill in:

  114. Search for Zhongliang Huang in:

  115. Search for I Fang Sun in:

  116. Search for Kalan Ickes in:

  117. Search for Akira Itoh in:

  118. Search for Natália Ivanauskas in:

  119. Search for Betsy Jackes in:

  120. Search for John Janovec in:

  121. Search for Daniel Janzen in:

  122. Search for Mo Jiangming in:

  123. Search for Chen Jin in:

  124. Search for Trevor Jones in:

  125. Search for Hermes Justiniano in:

  126. Search for Elisabeth Kalko in:

  127. Search for Aventino Kasangaki in:

  128. Search for Timothy Killeen in:

  129. Search for Hen-biau King in:

  130. Search for Erik Klop in:

  131. Search for Cheryl Knott in:

  132. Search for Inza Koné in:

  133. Search for Enoka Kudavidanage in:

  134. Search for José Lahoz da Silva Ribeiro in:

  135. Search for John Lattke in:

  136. Search for Richard Laval in:

  137. Search for Robert Lawton in:

  138. Search for Miguel Leal in:

  139. Search for Mark Leighton in:

  140. Search for Miguel Lentino in:

  141. Search for Cristiane Leonel in:

  142. Search for Jeremy Lindsell in:

  143. Search for Lee Ling-Ling in:

  144. Search for K. Eduard Linsenmair in:

  145. Search for Elizabeth Losos in:

  146. Search for Ariel Lugo in:

  147. Search for Jeremiah Lwanga in:

  148. Search for Andrew L. Mack in:

  149. Search for Marlucia Martins in:

  150. Search for W. Scott McGraw in:

  151. Search for Roan McNab in:

  152. Search for Luciano Montag in:

  153. Search for Jo Myers Thompson in:

  154. Search for Jacob Nabe-Nielsen in:

  155. Search for Michiko Nakagawa in:

  156. Search for Sanjay Nepal in:

  157. Search for Marilyn Norconk in:

  158. Search for Vojtech Novotny in:

  159. Search for Sean O'Donnell in:

  160. Search for Muse Opiang in:

  161. Search for Paul Ouboter in:

  162. Search for Kenneth Parker in:

  163. Search for N. Parthasarathy in:

  164. Search for Kátia Pisciotta in:

  165. Search for Dewi Prawiradilaga in:

  166. Search for Catherine Pringle in:

  167. Search for Subaraj Rajathurai in:

  168. Search for Ulrich Reichard in:

  169. Search for Gay Reinartz in:

  170. Search for Katherine Renton in:

  171. Search for Glen Reynolds in:

  172. Search for Vernon Reynolds in:

  173. Search for Erin Riley in:

  174. Search for Mark-Oliver Rödel in:

  175. Search for Jessica Rothman in:

  176. Search for Philip Round in:

  177. Search for Shoko Sakai in:

  178. Search for Tania Sanaiotti in:

  179. Search for Tommaso Savini in:

  180. Search for Gertrud Schaab in:

  181. Search for John Seidensticker in:

  182. Search for Alhaji Siaka in:

  183. Search for Miles R. Silman in:

  184. Search for Thomas B. Smith in:

  185. Search for Samuel Soares de Almeida in:

  186. Search for Navjot Sodhi in:

  187. Search for Craig Stanford in:

  188. Search for Kristine Stewart in:

  189. Search for Emma Stokes in:

  190. Search for Kathryn E. Stoner in:

  191. Search for Raman Sukumar in:

  192. Search for Martin Surbeck in:

  193. Search for Mathias Tobler in:

  194. Search for Teja Tscharntke in:

  195. Search for Andrea Turkalo in:

  196. Search for Govindaswamy Umapathy in:

  197. Search for Merlijn van Weerd in:

  198. Search for Jorge Vega Rivera in:

  199. Search for Meena Venkataraman in:

  200. Search for Linda Venn in:

  201. Search for Carlos Verea in:

  202. Search for Carolina Volkmer de Castilho in:

  203. Search for Matthias Waltert in:

  204. Search for Benjamin Wang in:

  205. Search for David Watts in:

  206. Search for William Weber in:

  207. Search for Paige West in:

  208. Search for David Whitacre in:

  209. Search for Ken Whitney in:

  210. Search for David Wilkie in:

  211. Search for Stephen Williams in:

  212. Search for Debra D. Wright in:

  213. Search for Patricia Wright in:

  214. Search for Lu Xiankai in:

  215. Search for Pralad Yonzon in:

  216. Search for Franky Zamzani in:

Contributions

W.F.L. conceived the study and coordinated its design, analysis and manuscript preparation. D.C.U., J.R. and M.K. conducted the interviews; C.J.A.B. assisted with data analysis and some writing; and S.P.S., S.G.L., M.C. and W.L. organized data or collected metadata. The remaining authors provided detailed interviews on protected areas and offered feedback on the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to William F. Laurance.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Information

    This file contains Supplementary Figures 1-6, Supplementary Text and Data, Supplementary Tables 1-6, additional references and a Supplementary Appendix, which comprises a non-interactive copy of an expert questionnaire.

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.