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This paper constructs an economic growth model in which useful work (from an energy perspective) is a major contributor to growth.
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Hendrickson, C., Lave, L. & Matthews, S. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services: An Input–Output Approach (RFF Press, 2006).
Yu, J., Williams, E., Ju, M. & Yang, Y. Forecasting global generation of obsolete personal computers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 3232–3237 (2010).
This global forecast predicts that the developing world will dispose of more computers than the developed world from 2016–18 onwards.
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This paper develops a hybrid LCA method to account for missing data and finds that the energy used during manufacturing a home desktop computer exceeds its lifetime operating energy.
Deng, L., Babbitt, C. & Williams, E. Economic-balance hybrid LCA extended with uncertainty analysis: case study of laptop computer. J. Cleaner Prod. 19, 1198–1206 (2011).
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This paper examines the sustainability implications for end-of-life computers, such as informal recycling in the developing world and emissions from electronics in landfill sites.
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Williams, E. The environmental impacts of semiconductor fabrication. Thin Solid Films 461, 2–6 (2004).
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This non-governmental report highlighted the problem of informal recycling in the developing world.
Basel Action Network. The Digital Dump: Exporting Re-use and Abuse to Africa. Media Release Version (Basel Action Network, 2005).
Toxics Link. Scrapping the High-Tech Myth: Computer Waste in India (Toxics Link, 2003).
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Green Design Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. Economic Input–Output Life Cycle Assessment 〈http://www.eiolca.net〉 (Green Design Institute, 2011).
Williams, E., Ayres, R. & Heller, M. The 1.7 kg microchip: energy and chemical use in the production of semiconductors. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 5504–5510 (2002).
Boyd, S., Horvath, A. & Dornfeld, D. Life-cycle energy demand and global warming potential of computational logic. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 7303–7309 (2009).
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Deng, L. & Williams, E. Functionality versus “typical product” measures of energy efficiency: case study of semiconductor manufacturing. J. Indust. Ecol. 15, 108–121 (2011).
This paper develops the metric of 'typical product to track efficiency trends and contrasts it with the standard functionality measure for energy use in semiconductor manufacturing.
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This study inventories US office and network equipment and links it to device-level energy-use data to estimate its national energy use.
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This article discusses the definition of criticality of metals, recounts the use of critical metals in different technologies, and surveys the status of recycling.