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Additive threats from pathogens, climate and land-use change for global amphibian diversity


Amphibian population declines far exceed those of other vertebrate groups, with 30% of all species listed as threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature1,2,3. The causes of these declines are a matter of continued research, but probably include climate change, land-use change and spread of the pathogenic fungal disease chytridiomycosis1,4,5. Here we assess the spatial distribution and interactions of these primary threats in relation to the global distribution of amphibian species. We show that the greatest proportions of species negatively affected by climate change are projected to be found in Africa, parts of northern South America and the Andes. Regions with the highest projected impact of land-use and climate change coincide, but there is little spatial overlap with regions highly threatened by the fungal disease. Overall, the areas harbouring the richest amphibian faunas are disproportionately more affected by one or multiple threat factors than areas with low richness. Amphibian declines are likely to accelerate in the twenty-first century, because multiple drivers of extinction could jeopardize their populations more than previous, mono-causal, assessments have suggested.

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Figure 1: Current amphibian species richness and the intensity of three factors threatening global amphibian diversity projected for the year 2080.
Figure 2: Relationships among the intensities of the three main factors threatening global amphibian diversity.
Figure 3: Spatial distribution and pairwise overlap of the three main factors threatening global amphibian biodiversity, projected for the year 2080.
Figure 4: Spatial overlap between areas with the highest amphibian species richness and the main factors threatening global amphibian diversity, projected for 2080.


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We are grateful to D. Rödder, S. Lötters and J. Kielgast for the provision of data and B. dendrobatidis modelling results. We thank C. Graham, R. Colwell, N. Sanders, H. H. Bruun and S. Fritz for comments on previous versions of the manuscript. Special thanks to T. Rangel for technical and statistical support. C.H., M.B.A. and C.R. acknowledge the Danish National Research Foundation for support to the Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate; research by M.B.A. was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (PTDC/AAC-AMB/98163/2008); W.J. acknowledges support from NSF grants DBI 0960550 and DEB 1026764.

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C.H., M.B.A. and C.R. designed the study, C.H. performed all analyses, all authors discussed the results. C.H. wrote the paper, with substantial contributions from all authors.

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Correspondence to Christian Hof.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Hof, C., Araújo, M., Jetz, W. et al. Additive threats from pathogens, climate and land-use change for global amphibian diversity. Nature 480, 516–519 (2011).

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