Letter | Published:

Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

Nature volume 478, pages 103109 (06 October 2011) | Download Citation

Abstract

Blood pressure is a heritable trait1 influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)2. Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events3. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3GUCY1B3, NPR3C5orf23, ADM, FURINFES, GOSR2, GNASEDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.

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Acknowledgements

A number of the participating studies and authors are members of the CHARGE and Global BPgen consortia. Many funding mechanisms by NIH/NHLBI, European and private funding agencies contributed to this work and a full list is provided in section 21 of the Supplementary Materials.

Author information

Author notes

    • Leena Peltonen

    >Deceased.

    • Georg B. Ehret
    • , Patricia B. Munroe
    • , Kenneth M. Rice
    • , Murielle Bochud
    • , Andrew D. Johnson
    • , Daniel I. Chasman
    • , Albert V. Smith
    • , Bruce M. Psaty
    • , Gonçalo R. Abecasis
    • , Aravinda Chakravarti
    • , Paul Elliott
    • , Cornelia M. van Duijn
    • , Christopher Newton-Cheh
    • , Daniel Levy
    • , Mark J. Caulfield
    •  & Toby Johnson

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations

  1. Center for Complex Disease Genomics, McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    • Georg B. Ehret
    • , Vasyl Pihur
    • , Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen
    • , Dan E. Arking
    • , Gina Hilton
    •  & Aravinda Chakravarti
  2. Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Bugnon 17, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland.

    • Georg B. Ehret
    •  & Murielle Bochud
  3. Cardiology, Department of Specialties of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland.

    • Georg B. Ehret
  4. Clinical Pharmacology and The Genome Centre, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK.

    • Patricia B. Munroe
    • , Sue Shaw-Hawkins
    • , Mark J. Caulfield
    •  & Toby Johnson
  5. Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    • Kenneth M. Rice
  6. Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA.

    • Andrew D. Johnson
    • , Shih-Jen Hwang
    • , Thomas J. Wang
    • , Ramachandran S. Vasan
    • , Martin G. Larson
    •  & Daniel Levy
  7. National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20824, USA.

    • Andrew D. Johnson
    • , Shih-Jen Hwang
    •  & Daniel Levy
  8. Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Avenue East, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    • Daniel I. Chasman
    •  & Paul M Ridker
  9. Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Daniel I. Chasman
    • , Christopher J. O’Donnell
    •  & Paul M Ridker
  10. Icelandic Heart Association, 201 Kópavogur, Iceland.

    • Albert V. Smith
    • , Thor Aspelund
    •  & Vilmundur Gudnason
  11. University of Iceland, 101 Reykajvik, Iceland.

    • Albert V. Smith
    • , Thor Aspelund
    •  & Vilmundur Gudnason
  12. Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, University Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.

    • Martin D. Tobin
    • , Paul R. Burton
    • , Maria Soler Artigas
    • , Nick R.G. Shrine
    •  & Louise V. Wain
  13. Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Germaine C. Verwoert
    • , Najaf Amin
    • , Yurii Aulchenko
    • , Abbas Dehghan
    • , M. Arfan Ikram
    • , Albert Hofman
    • , Francesco U. S. Mattace-Raso
    • , Ayse Demirkan
    • , Aaron Isaacs
    • , Fernando Rivadeneira
    • , Eric J. G. Sijbrands
    • , Andre G. Uitterlinden
    • , Jacqueline C. M. Witteman
    •  & Cornelia M. van Duijn
  14. Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Germaine C. Verwoert
    • , Abbas Dehghan
    • , Francesco U. S. Mattace-Raso
    • , Fernando Rivadeneira
    • , Eric J. G. Sijbrands
    •  & Andre G. Uitterlinden
  15. Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Netherland Genome Initiative (NGI), Erasmus 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Germaine C. Verwoert
    • , Abbas Dehghan
    • , M. Arfan Ikram
    • , Andre G. Uitterlinden
    •  & Jacqueline C. M. Witteman
  16. Center for Population Studies, National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20824, USA.

    • Shih-Jen Hwang
    •  & Daniel Levy
  17. Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.

    • Peter Vollenweider
  18. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK.

    • Paul F. O’Reilly
    • , John C. Chambers
    • , Weihua Zhang
    • , Peter Würtz
    • , Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
    •  & Paul Elliott
  19. Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103, USA.

    • Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham
    •  & Gonçalo R. Abecasis
  20. Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, 17487 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Alexander Teumer
    •  & Uwe Völker
  21. Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA.

    • Nicole L. Glazer
    • , Joshua C. Bis
    •  & Bruce M. Psaty
  22. Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, Biometry, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    • Lenore Launer
    • , Melissa Garcia
    •  & Tamara B. Harris
  23. MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK.

    • Jing Hua Zhao
    • , Jian’an Luan
    • , Ruth J. F. Loos
    •  & Nicholas J. Wareham
  24. Centre National de Génotypage, Commissariat à L’Energie Atomique, Institut de Génomique, 91057 Evry, France.

    • Simon Heath
    • , Mark Lathrop
    •  & Diana Zelenika
  25. Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Riia 23, Tartu 51010, Estonia.

    • Siim Sõber
    • , Elin Org
    • , Gudrun Veldre
    •  & Maris Laan
  26. University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

    • Afshin Parsa
    • , Yen-Pei C. Chang
    • , Jeffrey R. O’Connell
    • , Nanette I. Steinle
    •  & Alan R. Shuldiner
  27. Center for Human Genetic Research, Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    • Pankaj Arora
    • , Sekar Kathiresan
    • , Christopher J. O’Donnell
    •  & Christopher Newton-Cheh
  28. Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, King’s College London, London SE1 7EH, UK.

    • Feng Zhang
    • , Massimo Mangino
    • , Tim D. Spector
    • , Guangju Zhai
    •  & Nicole Soranzo
  29. Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Genetics, Institut Municipal d’Investigacio Medica, Barcelona Biomedical Research Park, 88 Doctor Aiguader, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

    • Gavin Lucas
    •  & Roberto Elosua
  30. Institute of Genetic Medicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy - Affiliated Institute of the University of Lübeck, Germany.

    • Andrew A. Hicks
    • , Cristian Pattaro
    •  & Peter P. Pramstaller
  31. Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • Anne U. Jackson
    • , Laura J. Scott
    • , Heather M. Stringham
    •  & Michael Boehnke
  32. Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.

    • John F Peden
    • , Halit Ongen
    • , Anuj Goel
    • , Hugh Watkins
    •  & Martin Farrall
  33. Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21250, USA.

    • Toshiko Tanaka
    • , Yuri Milaneschi
    •  & Luigi Ferrucci
  34. Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK.

    • Sarah H. Wild
    •  & James F. Wilson
  35. Centre for Population Health Sciences and Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Vet Medicine, University of Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK.

    • Igor Rudan
    •  & Harry Campbell
  36. Croatian Centre for Global Health, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia.

    • Igor Rudan
  37. Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.

    • Wilmar Igl
    •  & Ulf B. Gyllensten
  38. Amgen, 1 Kendall Square, Building 100, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

    • Alex N. Parker
  39. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden.

    • Cristiano Fava
    • , Marketa Sjögren
    • , Bo Hedblad
    • , Peter Nilsson
    •  & Olle Melander
  40. Department of Medicine, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

    • Cristiano Fava
  41. Ealing Hospital, London UB1 3HJ, UK.

    • John C. Chambers
    • , Joban S. Sehmi
    •  & Jaspal S. Kooner
  42. Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA.

    • Ervin R. Fox
    •  & Albert W. Dreisbach
  43. Genetic Epidemiology Group, Epidemiology and Public Health, UCL, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

    • Meena Kumari
    •  & Andrew Taylor
  44. Center for Genome Science, National Institute of Health, Seoul 122-701, Korea.

    • Min Jin Go
    • , Yoon Shin Cho
    • , Hyung-Lae Kim
    • , Jong-Young Lee
    •  & Bok-Ghee Han
  45. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Pim van der Harst
    •  & Wiek H. van Gilst
  46. Departments of Epidemiology and Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    • Wen Hong Linda Kao
  47. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, India.

    • D. G. Vinay
    • , Charles S. Janipalli
    • , K. Radha Mani
    • , M. V. Kranthi Kumar
    •  & Giriraj R. Chandak
  48. Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, CB1 8RN, UK.

    • Myriam Alexander
    • , Kay-Tee Khaw
    • , John Danesh
    •  & Danish Saleheen
  49. Department of Basic Medical Research and Education, and Department of Geriatric Medicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, 791-0295, Japan.

    • Yasuharu Tabara
    •  & Tetsuro Miki
  50. Division of Community Health Sciences, St George’s University of London, London SW17 0RE, UK.

    • Peter H. Whincup
    • , David Hadley
    •  & David P. Strachan
  51. Epidemiology & Prevention, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA.

    • Yongmei Liu
    • , Megan E. Rudock
    •  & Inga Prokopenko
  52. Division of Biostatistics and Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    • Gang Shi
  53. Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, 70210 Kuopio, Finland.

    • Johanna Kuusisto
    • , Alena Stančáková
    •  & Markku Laakso
  54. Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Medical School, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.

    • Bamidele Tayo
    •  & Richard S. Cooper
  55. Department of Laboratory Medicine & Institute of Human Genetics, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave. San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    • Mark Seielstad
  56. Genome Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore138672, Singapore.

    • Mark Seielstad
    •  & Rick Twee-Hee Ong
  57. Centre for Molecular Epidemiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore.

    • Xueling Sim
    • , Rick Twee-Hee Ong
    •  & E Shyong Tai
  58. Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere 33521, Finland.

    • Terho Lehtimäki
    •  & Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen
  59. Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Torino, Via Santena 19, 10126 Torino, Italy.

    • Giuseppe Matullo
    •  & Fulvio Ricceri
  60. Human Genetics Foundation (HUGEF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Torino, Italy.

    • Giuseppe Matullo
    • , Simonetta Guarrera
    • , Fulvio Ricceri
    •  & Paolo Vineis
  61. Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Ying Wu
    •  & Karen L. Mohlke
  62. MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social & Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK.

    • Tom R. Gaunt
    • , Ian N.M. Day
    • , Debbie A. Lawlor
    •  & George Davey Smith
  63. Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    • N. Charlotte Onland-Moret
    • , Cuno S. P. M. Uiterwaal
    • , Diederick E. Grobbee
    • , Michiel L. Bots
    •  & Yvonne T. van der Schouw
  64. Complex Genetics Section, Department of Medical Genetics - DBG, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    • N. Charlotte Onland-Moret
  65. Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

    • Matthew N. Cooper
    •  & Robert W. Lawrence
  66. HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7600 Levanger, Norway.

    • Carl G. P. Platou
    •  & Kristian Hveem
  67. MRC Unit for Lifelong Health & Ageing, London WC1B 5JU, UK.

    • Rebecca Hardy
    • , Andrew Wong
    •  & Diana Kuh
  68. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.

    • Santosh Dahgam
    •  & Fredrik Nyberg
  69. Centre for Cardiovascular Genetics, University College London, London WC1E 6JF, UK.

    • Jutta Palmen
    • , Jackie A. Cooper
    • , Steve E. Humphries
    •  & Philippa J. Talmud
  70. MRC Human Genetics Unit and Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Edinburgh EH2, UK.

    • Veronique Vitart
    • , Caroline Hayward
    •  & Alan F. Wright
  71. Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK.

    • Peter S. Braund
    • , Maciej Tomaszewski
    • , Matthew Denniff
    •  & Nilesh J. Samani
  72. Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Unit in Cardiovascular Disease, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, LE3 9QP, UK.

    • Peter S. Braund
    • , Maciej Tomaszewski
    • , Paul R. Burton
    •  & Nilesh J. Samani
  73. Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiac Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Campus Sint Rafaël, Kapucijnenvoer 35, Block D, Box 7001, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

    • Tatiana Kuznetsova
    •  & Jan A. Staessen
  74. Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    • Adebowale Adeyemo
    • , Ayo Doumatey
    • , Daniel Shriner
    •  & Charles Rotimi
  75. Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

    • Walter Palmas
  76. Department of Medicine III, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus at the Technical University of Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

    • Barbara Ludwig
    • , Stefan R. Bornstein
    •  & Jürgen Grässler
  77. Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London W2 1PG, UK.

    • Ioanna Tzoulaki
  78. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, 45110 Ioannina, Greece.

    • Ioanna Tzoulaki
  79. Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA.

    • Nicholette D. Palmer
    • , Carl D. Langefeld
    •  & Lynne E. Wagenknecht
  80. Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • Sharon L. Kardia
    •  & Yan V. Sun
  81. Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas at Houston Health Science Center, 12 Herman Pressler, Suite 453E, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    • Alanna C. Morrison
  82. Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    • Dena Hernandez
    • , Andrew Singleton
    •  & Michael A. Nalls
  83. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    • Samer Najjar
  84. Washington Hospital Center, Division of Cardiology, Washington, District of Columbia 20010, USA.

    • Samer Najjar
  85. ALSPAC Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK.

    • Wendy L. McArdle
  86. Pediatric Epidemiology Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.

    • David Hadley
  87. Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK.

    • Morris J. Brown
  88. University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital &Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK.

    • John M. Connell
  89. Genetic Epidemiology Group, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

    • Aroon D. Hingorani
  90. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

    • John P. Beilby
  91. Molecular Genetics, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia.

    • John P. Beilby
  92. Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK.

    • Robert Clarke
    •  & Jemma C. Hopewell
  93. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, 2103 Cornell Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

    • Yali Li
    •  & Xiaofeng Zhu
  94. Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore 21205, USA.

    • J. Hunter Young
  95. Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, 33521, Finland.

    • Mika Kähönen
  96. Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku 20521, Finland.

    • Jorma Viikari
  97. Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Linda S. Adair
  98. Office of Population Studies Foundation, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu City 6000, Philippines.

    • Nanette R. Lee
  99. Department of Neurology and Framingham Heart Study, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    • Ming-Huei Chen
  100. Department of Internal Medicine II, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany.

    • Matthias Olden
  101. Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany.

    • Matthias Olden
  102. Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    • Judith A. Hoffman Bolton
    •  & Anna Köttgen
  103. Renal Division, University Hospital Freiburg, 79095 Freiburg, Germany.

    • Anna Köttgen
  104. Département de Génétique Médicale, Université de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

    • Sven Bergmann
    •  & Jacques S. Beckmann
  105. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

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  106. Division of Genetics, GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101, USA.

    • Vincent Mooser
  107. International Centre for Circulatory Health, National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

    • Nish Chaturvedi
  108. Genetics of Complex Traits, Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QJ, UK.

    • Timothy M. Frayling
  109. Department of Community Health Sciences & Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi 74800, Pakistan.

    • Muhammad Islam
    •  & Tazeen H. Jafar
  110. Medizinische Klinik II, Universität zu Lübeck, 23538 Lübeck, Germany.

    • Jeanette Erdmann
  111. Diabetes Unit, KEM Hospital and Research Centre, Rasta Peth, Pune-411011, Maharashtra, India.

    • Smita R. Kulkarni
    •  & Chittaranjan S. Yajnik
  112. Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, University Hospital, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden.

    • Leif Groop
  113. Lund University, Malmö 20502, Sweden.

    • Leif Groop
  114. Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

    • Benjamin F. Voight
    • , David Altshuler
    •  & Christopher Newton-Cheh
  115. Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00251 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Johannes Kettunen
  116. FIMM, Institute for Molecular Medicine, Finland, Biomedicum, P.O. Box 104, 00251 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Johannes Kettunen
    •  & Leena Peltonen
  117. William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK.

    • Philip Howard
  118. Merck Research Laboratory, 126 East Lincoln Avenue, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA.

    • Valur Emilsson
    •  & Andrew Plump
  119. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, CB10 1SA, UK.

    • Inês Barroso
    • , Leena Peltonen
    • , Panos Deloukas
    •  & Nicole Soranzo
  120. University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Labs, Institute of Metabolic Science Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 OQQ, UK.

    • Inês Barroso
  121. Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • Alan B. Weder
  122. Cardiovascular Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA.

    • Steven C. Hunt
  123. Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.

    • Richard N. Bergman
  124. National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892,USA.

    • Francis S. Collins
    • , Lori L. Bonnycastle
    • , Narisu Narisu
    • , Mario A. Morken
    •  & Amy J. Swift
  125. National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Leena Peltonen
    • , Markus Perola
    • , Erkki Vartiainen
    •  & Veikko Salomaa
  126. Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.

    • Leena Peltonen
  127. Leibniz-Institute for Arteriosclerosis Research, Department of Molecular Genetics of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany.

    • Stefan-Martin Brand
  128. Medical Faculty of the Westfalian Wilhelms University Muenster, Department of Molecular Genetics of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany.

    • Stefan-Martin Brand
  129. Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    • Thomas J. Wang
  130. Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA.

    • Yanbin Dong
    • , Harold Snieder
    • , Xiaoling Wang
    •  & Haidong Zhu
  131. Unit of Genetic Epidemiology and Bioinformatics, Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Harold Snieder
  132. Department of Biostatical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA.

    • Kurt K. Lohman
  133. Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    • Susan R. Heckbert
    • , Nicholas L. Smith
    •  & Stephen M. Schwartz
  134. Group Health Research Institute, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington 98124, USA.

    • Susan R. Heckbert
    • , Nicholas L. Smith
    •  & Bruce M. Psaty
  135. Seattle Epidemiologic Research and Information Center, Veterans Health Administration Office of Research & Development, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA.

    • Nicholas L. Smith
  136. Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    • Kerri L. Wiggins
  137. Department of Cardiology, University of Tartu, L. Puusepa 8, 51014 Tartu, Estonia.

    • Gudrun Veldre
  138. Tallinn University of Technology, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia.

    • Margus Viigimaa
  139. Centre of Cardiology, North Estonia Medical Centre, Sütiste tee 19, 13419 Tallinn, Estonia.

    • Margus Viigimaa
  140. Department of Non-communicable disease Epidemiology, The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK.

    • Sanjay Kinra
  141. South Asia Network for Chronic Disease, Public Health Foundation of India, C-1/52, SDA, New Delhi 100016, India.

    • Dorairaj Prabhakaran
    •  & Vikal Tripathy
  142. Department of Emergency and Cardiovascular Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 41685 Gothenburg, Sweden.

    • Annika Rosengren
  143. Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, 0317 Oslo, Norway.

    • Dag S. Thelle
  144. Tuscany Regional Health Agency, 50129 Florence, Italy.

    • Anna Maria Corsi
  145. Tropical Medicine Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica.

    • Terrence Forrester
    •  & Colin A. McKenzie
  146. University of Ibadan, 200284 Ibadan, Nigeria.

    • Tunde Salako
  147. Department of Genomic Medicine, and Department of Preventive Cardiology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Research Center, Suita, 565-8565, Japan.

    • Naoharu Iwai
    •  & Tomonori Okamura
  148. Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, 520-2192, Japan.

    • Yoshikuni Kita
    • , Takayoshi Ohkubo
    • , Tomonori Okamura
    •  & Hirotsugu Ueshima
  149. Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, 565-0871, Japan.

    • Toshio Ogihara
  150. Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Medicine, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan.

    • Takayoshi Ohkubo
  151. Lifestyle-related Disease Prevention Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, 520-2192, Japan.

    • Hirotsugu Ueshima
  152. Department of Medical Science and Cardiorenal Medicine, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

    • Satoshi Umemura
  153. Department of Statistics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuña Mackena 4860, Santiago, Chile.

    • Susana Eyheramendy
  154. Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    • Thomas Meitinger
  155. Institute of Human Genetics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, 81675 Munich, Germany.

    • Thomas Meitinger
  156. Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

    • H.-Erich Wichmann
    •  & Christian Gieger
  157. Chair of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 81377 Munich, Germany.

    • H.-Erich Wichmann
  158. Klinikum Grosshadern, 81377 Munich, Germany.

    • H.-Erich Wichmann
  159. National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London W12 0HS, UK.

    • James Scott
    • , Joban S. Sehmi
    •  & Jaspal S. Kooner
  160. Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA.

    • Leslie J. Raffel
    • , Jie Yao
    • , Xiuqing Guo
    •  & Jerome I. Rotter
  161. Medical Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 5 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.

    • Sekar Kathiresan
  162. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and its Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mount Wayte Ave., Suite #2, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA.

    • Christopher J. O’Donnell
  163. Department of Neurology and Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    • W. T. Longstreth Jr
  164. Department of Medicine (Geriatrics), University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA.

    • Thomas H. Mosley
  165. Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    • Sudha Seshadri
  166. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Aapistie 1, 90220 Oulu, Finland.

    • Jaana Laitinen
  167. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.

    • Inga Prokopenko
  168. Lapland Central Hospital, Department of Physiatrics, Box 8041, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland.

    • Paavo Zitting
  169. Center for Non-Communicable Diseases Karachi 74800, Pakistan.

    • Asif Rasheed
    •  & Danish Saleheen
  170. Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

    • Anders Hamsten
  171. Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Stephan J. L. Bakker
  172. Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Ben A. Oostra
  173. Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

    • Edward G. Lakatta
    •  & Angelo Scuteri
  174. Istituto di Neurogenetica e Neurofarmacologia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy.

    • Marco Orru
    •  & Manuela Uda
  175. Unita Operativa Semplice Cardiologia, Divisione di Medicina, Presidio Ospedaliero Santa Barbara, 09016 Iglesias, Italy.

    • Marco Orru
  176. Computational Medicine Research Group, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu and Biocenter Oulu, 90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

    • Mika Ala-Korpela
    • , Antti J. Kangas
    • , Pasi Soininen
    • , Taru Tukiainen
    •  & Peter Würtz
  177. NMR Metabonomics Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

    • Mika Ala-Korpela
    •  & Pasi Soininen
  178. Department of Internal Medicine and Biocenter Oulu, Clinical Research Center, 90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

    • Mika Ala-Korpela
  179. Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

    • Taru Tukiainen
    •  & Peter Würtz
  180. Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University, 00076 Aalto, Espoo, Finland.

    • Taru Tukiainen
  181. NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences & Engineering (NGS) Centre for Life Sciences (CeLS), Singapore 117456, Singapore.

    • Rick Twee-Hee Ong
  182. Department of Internal Medicine B, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, 17487 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Marcus Dörr
  183. Institute of Pharmacology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, 17487 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Heyo K. Kroemer
  184. Institute for Community Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, 17487 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Henry Völzke
  185. U557 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U1125 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Université Paris 13, 93017 Bobigny, France.

    • Pilar Galan
    •  & Serge Hercberg
  186. Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA.

    • James F. Meschia
  187. Imperial College Cerebrovascular Unit (ICCRU), Imperial College, London W6 8RF, UK.

    • Pankaj Sharma
  188. Faculty of Medicine, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia.

    • Janos Terzic
  189. Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetology, and Nephrology, Medical University of Silesia, 41-800, Zabrze, Poland.

    • Ewa Zukowska-Szczechowska
  190. Public Health Sciences section, Division of Community Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Medical School, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK.

    • F. Gerald R. Fowkes
  191. School of Science and Engineering, University of Ballarat, 3353 Ballarat, Australia.

    • Fadi J. Charchar
  192. Prevention and Care of Diabetes, Department of Medicine III, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus at the Technical University of Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

    • Peter E. H. Schwarz
  193. University Hospital Münster, Internal Medicine D, 48149 Münster, Germany.

    • Eva Brand
  194. Department of Medical Statistics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Andrija Stampar School of Public Health, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

    • Ozren Polasek
  195. AstraZeneca R&D, 431 83 Mölndal, Sweden.

    • Fredrik Nyberg
  196. Genetic Epidemiology & Biostatistics Platform, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada.

    • Lyle J. Palmer
  197. Samuel Lunenfeld Institute for Medical Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada.

    • Lyle J. Palmer
  198. Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK.

    • Juan P. Casas
  199. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK.

    • Paolo Vineis
  200. Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and the Department of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, 20521, Finland.

    • Olli Raitakari
  201. Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • Santhi K. Ganesh
  202. Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore 168751, Singapore.

    • Tien Y. Wong
  203. Department of Ophthalmology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119074, Singapore.

    • Tien Y. Wong
  204. Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119074, Singapore.

    • E Shyong Tai
  205. Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore.

    • E Shyong Tai
  206. Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    • Dabeeru C. Rao
  207. Department of Primary Care & Population Health, UCL, London NW3 2PF, UK.

    • Richard W. Morris
  208. BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK.

    • Anna F. Dominiczak
  209. Epidemiology Public Health, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

    • Mika Kivimaki
    •  & Michael G. Marmot
  210. Departments of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    • Josef Coresh
  211. Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Gerjan Navis
  212. Division of Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Avenue East, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    • Paul M Ridker
  213. Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze (ASF), 50100 Florence, Italy.

    • Stefania Bandinelli
  214. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Diabetes Prevention Unit, 00271 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Jaakko Tuomilehto
  215. Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

    • Jaakko Tuomilehto
  216. South Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, 60220 Seinäjoki, Finland.

    • Jaakko Tuomilehto
  217. Red RECAVA Grupo RD06/0014/0015, Hospital Universitario La Paz, 28046 Madrid, Spain.

    • Jaakko Tuomilehto
  218. Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, 39100 Bolzano, Italy.

    • Peter P. Pramstaller
  219. CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

    • Roberto Elosua
  220. Department of Medicine and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • David Altshuler
  221. Geriatric Research and Education Clinical Center, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

    • Alan R. Shuldiner
  222. U872 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006 Paris, France.

    • Pierre Meneton
  223. Institute of Physiology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, 17487 Greifswald, Germany.

    • Rainer Rettig
  224. Institute of Clinical Medicine/Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland.

    • Anna-Liisa Hartikainen
  225. Service of Medical Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.

    • Jacques S. Beckmann
  226. Human Genetics Center, 1200 Hermann Pressler, Suite E447 Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    • Eric Boerwinkle
  227. Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    • Ramachandran S. Vasan
  228. Department of Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    • Martin G. Larson
  229. Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, BOX 5000, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland.

    • Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
  230. Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, BOX 5000, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland.

    • Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
  231. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Box 310, 90101 Oulu, Finland.

    • Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
  232. MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK.

    • Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
    •  & Paul Elliott
  233. Centre of Medical Systems Biology (CMSB 1-2), NGI Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Cornelia M. van Duijn

Consortia

  1. The International Consortium for Blood Pressure Genome-Wide Association Studies

    CARDIoGRAM consortium

    CKDGen Consortium

    KidneyGen Consortium

    EchoGen consortium

    CHARGE-HF consortium

Authors

    Contributions

    Full author contributions and roles are listed in Supplementary Materials section 19.

    Competing interests

    The author declare no competing financial interests.

    Corresponding authors

    Correspondence to Patricia B. Munroe or Aravinda Chakravarti or Christopher Newton-Cheh or Daniel Levy or Mark J. Caulfield.

    Supplementary information

    PDF files

    1. 1.

      Supplementary Information

      This file contains Supplementary Text, legends for Supplementary Tables 1-14 (see separate file Supplementary Tables file (“ICBPresub4_SoMtables_final.xls”), Supplementary Table 15, Supplementary Figures 1-6 with legends, Supplementary Reference, Author Contributions and Acknowledgements (see Contents for more details).

    Excel files

    1. 1.

      Supplementary Tables

      This file (“ICBPresub4_SoMtables_final.xls”) contains Supplementary Tables 1-14 (see Supplementary Information files for legends).

    Zip files

    1. 1.

      Supplementary Data

      This zipped file (“ICBP-summary-Nature.csv”) contains the genome-wide meta-analysis p-values. The definitions of the variables are as follows: rsid: SNP ID (rs number); chr.hg18: chromosome; pos.hg18: physical position in hg18 coordinates; pval.GC.SBP: genome-wide meta-analysis p-values for systolic blood pressure, corrected for genomic control; pval.GC.DBP: genome-wide meta-analysis p-values for diastolic blood pressure, corrected for genomic control.  This file was replaced on 07 October 2011. Should you experience a problem opening this file please go to the following link http://www.georgehretlab.org/icbp_088023401234-9812599.html (please choose Supplementary Materials: Data file (genome-wide pvals) - the other files are old versions).

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    Publication history

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    DOI

    https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10405

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