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# An extremely primitive star in the Galactic halo

## Abstract

The early Universe had a chemical composition consisting of hydrogen, helium and traces of lithium1; almost all other elements were subsequently created in stars and supernovae. The mass fraction of elements more massive than helium, Z, is known as ‘metallicity’. A number of very metal-poor stars has been found2,3, some of which have a low iron abundance but are rich in carbon, nitrogen and oxygen4,5,6. For theoretical reasons7,8 and because of an observed absence of stars with Z < 1.5 × 10−5, it has been suggested that low-mass stars cannot form from the primitive interstellar medium until it has been enriched above a critical value of Z, estimated to lie in the range 1.5 × 10−8 to 1.5 × 10−6 (ref. 8), although competing theories claiming the contrary do exist9. (We use ‘low-mass’ here to mean a stellar mass of less than 0.8 solar masses, the stars that survive to the present day.) Here we report the chemical composition of a star in the Galactic halo with a very low Z (≤ 6.9 × 10−7, which is 4.5 × 10−5 times that of the Sun10) and a chemical pattern typical of classical extremely metal-poor stars2,3—that is, without enrichment of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. This shows that low-mass stars can be formed at very low metallicity, that is, below the critical value of Z. Lithium is not detected, suggesting a low-metallicity extension of the previously observed trend in lithium depletion11. Such lithium depletion implies that the stellar material must have experienced temperatures above two million kelvin in its history, given that this is necessary to destroy lithium.

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$32.00 All prices are NET prices. ## References 1. Iocco, F., Mangano, G., Miele, G., Pisanti, O. & Serpico, P. D. Primordial nucleosynthesis: from precision cosmology to fundamental physics. Phys. Rep. 472, 1–76 (2009) 2. Cayrel, R. et al. First stars V — Abundance patterns from C to Zn and supernova yields in the early Galaxy. Astron. Astrophys. 416, 1117–1138 (2004) 3. Bonifacio, P. et al. First stars XII. Abundances in extremely metal-poor turnoff stars, and comparison with the giants. Astron. Astrophys. 501, 519–530 (2009) 4. Frebel, A., Collet, R., Eriksson, K., Christlieb, N. & Aoki, W. HE 1327–2326, an unevolved star with [Fe/H]&lt;−5.0. II. New 3D–1D corrected abundances from a Very Large Telescope UVES spectrum. Astrophys. J. 684, 588–602 (2008) 5. Christlieb, N. et al. A stellar relic from the early Milky Way. Nature 419, 904–906 (2002) 6. Norris, J. E. et al. HE 0557–4840: ultra-metal-poor and carbon-rich. Astrophys. J. 670, 774–788 (2007) 7. Bromm, V. & Loeb, A. 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E.C. is a Gliese fellow. ## Author information ### Authors and Affiliations Authors ### Contributions E.C. developed the code for the analysis of the SDSS spectra, selected the targets for high resolution follow-up, performed the chemical analysis of X-Shooter and UVES spectra and was mainly responsible for writing the paper. P.B. supervised the project and was the Principal Investigator of the ESO proposals. P.F. reduced the X-Shooter data and cross-checked the chemical analysis. L.S. reduced the UVES data. L.M. performed the X-Shooter observations. M.S. and F.S. cross-checked the chemical analysis and contributed to writing the paper. H.-G.L. provided the codes for 3D hydrodynamical simulations and spectral synthesis. R.C. was the main inspirer of this project. S.Z. was responsible for the interpretation of the kinematical data. F.H. and S.R. were respectively the French and Italian Principal Investigators of X-Shooter, who were granted the GTO and decided to invest it in this project. P.M., V.H. and all the other authors contributed to the astrophysical interpretation and to the final version of the paper. ### Corresponding author Correspondence to Elisabetta Caffau. ## Ethics declarations ### Competing interests The authors declare no competing financial interests. ## PowerPoint slides ### PowerPoint slide for Fig. 1 ### PowerPoint slide for Fig. 2 ## Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions ## About this article ### Cite this article Caffau, E., Bonifacio, P., François, P. et al. An extremely primitive star in the Galactic halo. Nature 477, 67–69 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10377 Download citation • Received: • Accepted: • Published: • Issue Date: • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10377 ## Further reading • ### Heavy elements • Camilla Juul Hansen Experimental Astronomy (2022) • ### De re metallica: the cosmic chemical evolution of galaxies • R. Maiolino • F. Mannucci The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review (2019) • ### Photometric calibration of the [ α$\alpha$/Fe] element: II. Calibration with SDSS photometry • E. Yaz Gökçe • S. Bilir • O. Plevne Astrophysics and Space Science (2017) • ### Lithium in Stellar Atmospheres: Observations and Theory • L. S. Lyubimkov Astrophysics (2016) • ### Photometric calibration of the [ α /Fe$\alpha\mbox{/Fe}$] element: I. Calibration with U B V$UBV\$ photometry

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