Uniform lithospheric extension1 predicts basic properties of non-volcanic rifted margins but fails to explain other important characteristics2,3. Significant discrepancies are observed at ‘type I’ margins (such as the Iberia–Newfoundland conjugates), where large tracts of continental mantle lithosphere are exposed at the sea floor4, and ‘type II’ margins (such as some ultrawide central South Atlantic margins), where thin continental crust spans wide regions below which continental lower crust and mantle lithosphere have apparently been removed5,6. Neither corresponds to uniform extension. Instead, either crust or mantle lithosphere has been preferentially removed. Using dynamical models, we demonstrate that these margins are opposite end members: in type I, depth-dependent extension results in crustal-necking breakup before mantle-lithosphere breakup and in type II, the converse is true. These two-layer, two-stage breakup behaviours explain the discrepancies and have implications for the styles of the associated sedimentary basins. Laterally flowing lower-mantle cratonic lithosphere may underplate some type II margins, thereby contributing to their anomalous characteristics.
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R.H. acknowledges support of the Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Norway. C.B. acknowledges support of the Canada Research Chair in Geodynamics. We thank G. Karner for comments on the manuscript.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
The file contains Supplementary Figures 1-6 with legends, Supplementary Methods, Supplementary Table1 and additional references. (PDF 5372 kb)
The movie shows Model I results, strong crust (shown for a subregion of the model domain). t = time since onset of extension, Δx = extension at uniform velocity 0.5 cm.a-1. Contours are isotherms in °C. Sediments (grey), upper/mid crust (orange),lower crust (white), (dark green) and (green) upper and lower continental mantle lithosphere, oceanic lithosphere (pale yellow), asthenosphere (yellow). (MOV 15967 kb)
The movie shows Model II-A results, weak crust (shown for a subregion of the model domain). t = time since onset of extension, Δx = extension at uniform velocity 0.5 cm.a-1. Contours are isotherms in °C. Sediments (grey), upper/mid crust (orange), lower crust (white), (dark green) and (green) upper and lower continental mantle lithosphere, oceanic lithosphere (pale yellow), asthenosphere (yellow). (MOV 24506 kb)
This movie shows Model II-C results, weak crust and cratonic underplate (shown for a subregion of the model domain). t = time since onset of extension, Δx =extension at uniform velocity 0.5 cm.a-1. Contours are isotherms in °C.Sediments (grey), upper/mid crust (orange), lower crust (white), (dark green) and (green) upper and lower continental mantle lithosphere, craton lower mantle lithosphere (light green), and craton crust (brown), oceanic lithosphere (pale yellow), asthenosphere (yellow). (MOV 27330 kb)
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Huismans, R., Beaumont, C. Depth-dependent extension, two-stage breakup and cratonic underplating at rifted margins. Nature 473, 74–78 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09988
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