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A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies

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Abstract

The largest products of magmatic activity on Earth, the great bodies of granite and their corresponding large eruptions, have a dual nature: homogeneity at the large scale and spatial and temporal heterogeneity at the small scale1,2,3,4. This duality calls for a mechanism that selectively removes the large-scale heterogeneities associated with the incremental assembly4 of these magmatic systems and yet occurs rapidly despite crystal-rich, viscous conditions seemingly resistant to mixing2,5. Here we show that a simple dynamic template can unify a wide range of apparently contradictory observations from both large plutonic bodies and volcanic systems by a mechanism of rapid remobilization (unzipping) of highly viscous crystal-rich mushes. We demonstrate that this remobilization can lead to rapid overturn and produce the observed juxtaposition of magmatic materials with very disparate ages and complex chemical zoning. What distinguishes our model is the recognition that the process has two stages. Initially, a stiff mushy magma is reheated from below, producing a reduction in crystallinity that leads to the growth of a subjacent buoyant mobile layer. When the thickening mobile layer becomes sufficiently buoyant, it penetrates the overlying viscous mushy magma. This second stage rapidly exports homogenized material from the lower mobile layer to the top of the system, and leads to partial overturn within the viscous mush itself as an additional mechanism of mixing. Model outputs illustrate that unzipping can rapidly produce large amounts of mobile magma available for eruption. The agreement between calculated and observed unzipping rates for historical eruptions at Pinatubo and at Montserrat demonstrates the general applicability of the model. This mechanism furthers our understanding of both the formation of periodically homogenized plutons (crust building) and of ignimbrites by large eruptions.

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Figure 1: Schematic of a stagnant mid-crustal reservoir being reheated from below by an intrusion.
Figure 2: Time for mush melting from a steady source of heat as a function of mush viscosity.
Figure 3: Observed and predicted timescales for mush remobilization by unzipping for three natural cases.

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Acknowledgements

We thank O. Bachmann and C. Huber for discussions. The work was funded partially by the ERC grant 202844 under the European FP7.

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Contributions

A.B. and G.W.B. participated to the theoretical construction of the model. A.B. realized the numerical implementation and produced the first draft of the paper, which both authors then discussed.

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Correspondence to Alain Burgisser.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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This file contains Supplementary Figures 1-5 with legends, Supplementary Methods, Supplementary Tables 1-3, a Supplementary Discussion and additional references. (PDF 254 kb)

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Burgisser, A., Bergantz, G. A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies. Nature 471, 212–215 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09799

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