Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

The magic nature of 132Sn explored through the single-particle states of 133Sn

Abstract

Atomic nuclei have a shell structure1 in which nuclei with ‘magic numbers’ of neutrons and protons are analogous to the noble gases in atomic physics. Only ten nuclei with the standard magic numbers of both neutrons and protons have so far been observed. The nuclear shell model is founded on the precept that neutrons and protons can move as independent particles in orbitals with discrete quantum numbers, subject to a mean field generated by all the other nucleons. Knowledge of the properties of single-particle states outside nuclear shell closures in exotic nuclei is important2,3,4,5 for a fundamental understanding of nuclear structure and nucleosynthesis (for example the r-process, which is responsible for the production of about half of the heavy elements). However, as a result of their short lifetimes, there is a paucity of knowledge about the nature of single-particle states outside exotic doubly magic nuclei. Here we measure the single-particle character of the levels in 133Sn that lie outside the double shell closure present at the short-lived nucleus 132Sn. We use an inverse kinematics technique that involves the transfer of a single nucleon to the nucleus. The purity of the measured single-particle states clearly illustrates the magic nature of 132Sn.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Signs of magic nature: comparisons of Pb and Sn isotopes.
Figure 2: Q-value spectrum for the 132Sn(d,p) 133Sn reaction at 54° in the centre of mass.
Figure 3: Angular distributions, expressed as differential cross sections (dσ/dΩ), of protons in the centre of mass resulting from the 132Sn(d,p) 133Sn reaction for the two lowest states populated and cross-section measurements, also expressed as differential cross sections, for the two highest states.

References

  1. Mayer, M. G. & Jensen, J. H. D. Theory of Nuclear Shell Structure (Wiley, 1955)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. Barbieri, C. & Hjorth-Jensen, M. Quasiparticle and quasihole states of nuclei around 56Ni. Phys. Rev. C 79, 064313 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  3. Kartamyshev, M. P., Engeland, T., Hjorth-Jensen, M. & Osnes, E. Effective Interactions and shell model studies of heavy tin isotopes. Phys. Rev. C 76, 024313 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  4. Sarkar, S. & Sarkar, M. S. Shell model study of neutron-rich nuclei near 132Sn. Phys. Rev. C 64, 014312 (2001)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. Grawe, H., Langanke, K. & Martínez-Pinedo, G. Nuclear structure and astrophysics. Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1525–1582 (2007)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Cowan, J. J., Thielemann, F.-K. & Truran, J. W. The r-process and nucleochronology. Phys. Rep. 208, 267–394 (1991)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Coraggio, L., Covello, A., Gargano, A. & Itaco, N. Similarity of nuclear structure in the 132Sn and 208Pb regions: proton–neutron multiplets. Phys. Rev. C 80, 021305(R) (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  8. Terasaki, J., Engel, J., Nazarewicz, W. & Stoitsov, M. Anomalous behavior of 2+ excitations around 132Sn. Phys. Rev. C 66, 054313 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. Hoff, P. et al. Single-neutron states in 133Sn. Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1020–1023 (1996)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Urban, W. et al. Neutron single-particle energies in the 132Sn region. Eur. Phys. J. A 5, 239–241 (1999)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Kozub, R. L. et al. Neutron single particle strengths from the (d,p) reaction on 18F. Phys. Rev. C 73, 044307 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  12. Thomas, J. S. et al. Single-neutron excitations in neutron-rich 83Ge and 85Se. Phys. Rev. C 76, 044302 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  13. Rehm, K. E. et al. Study of the 56Ni(d,p)57Ni reaction and the astrophysical 56Ni(p,γ)57Cu reaction rate. Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 676–679 (1998)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Stracener, D. W. Status of radioactive ion beams at the HRIBF. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 521, 126–135 (2004)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Pain, S. D. et al. Development of a high solid-angle silicon detector array for measurement of transfer reactions in inverse kinematics. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 261, 1122–1125 (2007)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Wiza, J. L. Microchannel plate detectors. Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 587–601 (1979)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Thompson, I. J. Coupled reaction channels calculations in nuclear physics. Comput. Phys. Rep. 7, 167–211 (1988)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Reid, R. V. Local phenomenological nucleon–nucleon potentials. Ann. Phys. 50, 411–448 (1968)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  19. Strömich, A. et al. (d,p) reactions on 124Sn, 130Te, 138Ba, 140Ce, 142Nd, and 208Pb below and near the Coulomb barrier. Phys. Rev. C 16, 2193–2207 (1977)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  20. Pang, D. Y., Nunes, F. M. & Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. Are spectroscopic factors from transfer reactions consistent with asymptotic normalization coefficients? Phys. Rev. C 75, 024601 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  21. Kramer, G. J., Blok, H. P. & Lapikás, L. A consistent analysis of (e,e′p) and (d,3He) experiments. Nucl. Phys. A 679, 267–286 (2001)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  22. Ellegaard, C., Kantele, J. & Vedelsby, P. Particle–vibration coupling in 209Pb. Nucl. Phys. A 129, 113–128 (1969)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Hirota, K., Aoki, Y., Okumura, N. & Tagishi, Y. Deuteron elastic scattering and (d,p) reactions on 208Pb at E d = 22 MeV and j-dependence of T 20 in (d,p) reaction. Nucl. Phys. A 628, 547–579 (1998)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under contract numbers DEFG02-96ER40995 (Tennessee Technological University (TTU)), DE-FG52-03NA00143 (Rutgers, Oak Ridge Associated Universities), DE-AC05-00OR22725 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), DE-FG02-96ER40990 (TTU), DE-FG03-93ER40789 (Colorado School of Mines), DE-FG02-96ER40983 (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), DE-FG52-08NA28552 (Michigan State University (MSU)), DE-AC02-06CH11357 (MSU), the National Science Foundation under contract numbers NSF-PHY0354870 and NSF-PHY0757678 (Rutgers) and NSF-PHY-0555893 (MSU), and the UK Science and Technology Funding Council under contract number PP/F000715/1.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

K.L.J., D.W.B., J.C.B., J.A.C., R.L.K., J.F.L., C.D.N., S.D.P., D.S., M.S.S. and J.S.T. designed the experiment and developed the experimental tools and techniques. K.L.J., D.W.B., J.C.B., K.Y.C., R.H., R.L.K., J.F.L., B.H.M., S.D.P. and D.S. set up the experimental equipment, including new, unique detectors and associated electronics. K.L.J., D.W.B., J.C.B., K.Y.C., R.L.K., B.H.M., S.D.P., T.P.S. and J.S.T. developed online and offline analysis software routines and algorithms. K.L.J., A.S.A., D.W.B., J.C.B., K.Y.C., K.A.C., L.E., C.H., R.H., R.K., R.L.K., J.F.L., R.L., Z.M., B.H.M., C.D.N., S.D.P., N.P.P., D.S., J.F.S., M.S.S., T.P.S. and J.S.T. while running the experiment, assessed the quality and performed preliminary analyses of online data. K.L.J., K.Y.C., R.K., R.L.K., B.H.M., S.D.P. and T.P.S. analysed the data and calibrations. K.L.J., D.W.B., J.A.C., R.L.K., F.M.N. and S.D.P. interpreted the data, including theoretical calculations. K.L.J., J.A.C. and F.M.N. wrote the manuscript. K.L.J., D.W.B., J.C.B, K.A.C., J.A.C., R.L.K., J.F.L., F.M.N., S.D.P., J.F.S., M.S.S. and J.S.T. revised the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to K. L. Jones.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary information

This file contains Supplementary Data, Supplementary Figures 4-5 with legends, Supplementary Tables 2-5 and References. (PDF 280 kb)

PowerPoint slides

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Jones, K., Adekola, A., Bardayan, D. et al. The magic nature of 132Sn explored through the single-particle states of 133Sn. Nature 465, 454–457 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09048

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09048

This article is cited by

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing