Electrophysiology, the 'gold standard' for investigating neuronal signalling, is being challenged by a new generation of optical probes. Together with new forms of microscopy, these probes allow us to measure and control neuronal signals with spatial resolution and genetic specificity that already greatly surpass those of electrophysiology. We predict that the photon will progressively replace the electron for probing neuronal function, particularly for targeted stimulation and silencing of neuronal populations. Although electrophysiological characterization of channels, cells and neural circuits will remain necessary, new combinations of electrophysiology and imaging should lead to transformational discoveries in neuroscience.
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We are grateful to T. Branco, S. J. Caddick, M. Carandini, B. Clark, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, J. Isaacson, B. Judkewitz, R. Malinow, R. Morris, A. Roth, S. J. Smith, S. L. Smith, K. Svoboda and C. Wilms for helpful discussions and/or comments on the manuscript. We apologize to our colleagues whose work could not be cited owing to space constraints. Work in our laboratories is supported by grants from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the US National Institutes of Health (M.S.); and the Wellcome Trust, the European Union and the Gatsby Charitable Foundation (M.H.).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Reprints and permissions information is available at http://www.nature.com/reprints. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Correspondence should be addressed to M.S. (firstname.lastname@example.org) or M.H. (email@example.com).
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Scanziani, M., Häusser, M. Electrophysiology in the age of light. Nature 461, 930–939 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08540
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