The genome forms extensive and dynamic physical interactions with itself in the form of chromosome loops and bridges, thus exploring the three-dimensional space of the nucleus. It is now possible to examine these interactions at the molecular level, and we have gained glimpses of their functional implications. Chromosomal interactions can contribute to the silencing and activation of genes within the three-dimensional context of the nuclear architecture. Technical advances in detecting these interactions contribute to our understanding of the functional organization of the genome, as well as its adaptive plasticity in response to environmental changes during development and disease.
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We most gratefully acknowledge I. Solovei, B. Joffe, P. Cook, G. Klein and E. Heard for discussions. This work was supported by the Swedish Science Research Council, the Swedish Cancer Research Foundation, the Swedish Pediatric Cancer Foundation, the Lundberg Foundation, and HEROIC and CHILL (European Union integrated projects).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Göndör, A., Ohlsson, R. Chromosome crosstalk in three dimensions. Nature 461, 212–217 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08453
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