In the eukaryotic genome, the thousands of genes that encode messenger RNA are transcribed by a molecular machine called RNA polymerase II. Analysing the distribution and status of RNA polymerase II across a genome has provided crucial insights into the long-standing mysteries of transcription and its regulation. These studies identify points in the transcription cycle where RNA polymerase II accumulates after encountering a rate-limiting step. When coupled with genome-wide mapping of transcription factors, these approaches identify key regulatory steps and factors and, importantly, provide an understanding of the mechanistic generalities, as well as the rich diversities, of gene regulation.
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We thank members of the Lis laboratory for discussions and critical reading of the manuscript. Work in our laboratory is supported by US National Institutes of Health grant GM25232.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Reprints and permissions information is available at http://www.nature.com/reprints.
Correspondence should be addressed to J.T.L. (firstname.lastname@example.org).
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Fuda, N., Ardehali, M. & Lis, J. Defining mechanisms that regulate RNA polymerase II transcription in vivo. Nature 461, 186–192 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08449
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