Laser science has been successful in producing increasingly high-powered, faster and smaller coherent light sources1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Examples of recent advances are microscopic lasers that can reach the diffraction limit, based on photonic crystals3, metal-clad cavities4 and nanowires5,6,7. However, such lasers are restricted, both in optical mode size and physical device dimension, to being larger than half the wavelength of the optical field, and it remains a key fundamental challenge to realize ultracompact lasers that can directly generate coherent optical fields at the nanometre scale, far beyond the diffraction limit10,11. A way of addressing this issue is to make use of surface plasmons12,13, which are capable of tightly localizing light, but so far ohmic losses at optical frequencies have inhibited the realization of truly nanometre-scale lasers based on such approaches14,15. A recent theoretical work predicted that such losses could be significantly reduced while maintaining ultrasmall modes in a hybrid plasmonic waveguide16. Here we report the experimental demonstration of nanometre-scale plasmonic lasers, generating optical modes a hundred times smaller than the diffraction limit. We realize such lasers using a hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of a high-gain cadmium sulphide semiconductor nanowire, separated from a silver surface by a 5-nm-thick insulating gap. Direct measurements of the emission lifetime reveal a broad-band enhancement of the nanowire’s exciton spontaneous emission rate by up to six times owing to the strong mode confinement17 and the signature of apparently threshold-less lasing. Because plasmonic modes have no cutoff, we are able to demonstrate downscaling of the lateral dimensions of both the device and the optical mode. Plasmonic lasers thus offer the possibility of exploring extreme interactions between light and matter, opening up new avenues in the fields of active photonic circuits18, bio-sensing19 and quantum information technology20.
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We thank M. Ambati and D. Genov for discussions and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s Molecular Foundry for technical support. We acknowledge financial support from the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) MURI programme under grant number FA9550-04-1-0434 and from the National Science Foundation Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center (NSF-NSEC) under award number CMMI-0751621. T.Z. acknowledges a fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. V.J.S. acknowledges a fellowship from the Intel Corporation. L.D. and R.-M.M. acknowledge the National Natural Science Foundation of China (award numbers 60576037 and 10774007) and the National Basic Research Program of China (grant numbers 2006CB921607 and 2007CB613402).
Author Contributions R.F.O. developed the device design and conducted theoretical simulations. V.J.S., T.Z. and R.F.O. performed the optical measurements. R.-M.M. and L.D. synthesized the CdS nanowires. V.J.S. and C.G. fabricated the devices. X.Z., G.B. and R.F.O. guided the theoretical and experimental investigations. R.F.O., V.J.S., T.Z., G.B. and X.Z. analysed data and wrote the manuscript.
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Oulton, R., Sorger, V., Zentgraf, T. et al. Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale. Nature 461, 629–632 (2009) doi:10.1038/nature08364
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