Review Article | Published:

Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus

Nature volume 459, pages 931939 (18 June 2009) | Download Citation

Abstract

Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. The emergence of new strains will continue to pose challenges to public health and the scientific communities. A prime example is the recent emergence of swine-origin H1N1 viruses that have transmitted to and spread among humans, resulting in outbreaks internationally. Efforts to control these outbreaks and real-time monitoring of the evolution of this virus should provide us with invaluable information to direct infectious disease control programmes and to improve understanding of the factors that determine viral pathogenicity and/or transmissibility.

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Acknowledgements

We apologize to our colleagues whose critical contributions to influenza virus research could not be cited owing to the number of references permitted. We thank K. Wells for editing the manuscript. We also thank M. Ozawa and others in our laboratories who contributed to the data cited in this review. Our original research was supported by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Public Health Service research grants; by the Center for Research on Influenza Pathogenesis (CRIP) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (Contract HHSN266200700010C), Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research, by a contract research fund for the Program of Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, by grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Health and by ERATO (Japan Science and Technology Agency). G.N. is named as co-inventor on several patents about influenza virus reverse genetics and/or the development of influenza virus vaccines or antivirals. Y.K. is named as inventor/co-inventor on several patents about influenza virus reverse genetics and/or the development of influenza virus vaccines or antivirals. Figures 1 and 2 were modified from Orthomyxoviruses: influenza, in Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections: Virology (Hodder Arnold, 2005); Fig. 3 was modified from Orthomyxoviruses, in Fields Virology (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007).

Author Contributions G.N. wrote the manuscript. T.N. provided the electron microscopic picture. Y.K. also wrote the manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA

    • Gabriele Neumann
    •  & Yoshihiro Kawaoka
  2. International Research Center for Infectious Diseases,

    • Takeshi Noda
    •  & Yoshihiro Kawaoka
  3. Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan

    • Yoshihiro Kawaoka
  4. ERATO Infection-Induced Host Responses Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan

    • Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Authors

  1. Search for Gabriele Neumann in:

  2. Search for Takeshi Noda in:

  3. Search for Yoshihiro Kawaoka in:

Competing interests

[Competing Interests: Y.K. has received speaker’s honoraria from Chugai Pharmaceuticals, Novartis, Sankyo, Toyama Chemical, Wyeth and GlaxoSmithKline; grant support from Chugai Pharmaceuticals, Daiichi Sankyo Pharmaceutical and Toyama Chemical; consulting fee from Theraclone Sciences and Fort Dodge Animal Health; and is a founder of FluGen. G.N. has received consulting fee from Theraclone Sciences and is a founder of FluGen.]

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yoshihiro Kawaoka.

The authors declare competing financial interests: details accompany the full-text HTML version of the paper at www.nature.com/nature.

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https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08157

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