Lyman-α emitters are thought to be young, low-mass galaxies with ages of ∼108 yr (refs 1, 2). An overdensity of them in one region of the sky (the SSA 22 field) traces out a filamentary structure in the early Universe at a redshift of z ≈ 3.1 (equivalent to 15 per cent of the age of the Universe) and is believed to mark a forming protocluster3,4. Galaxies that are bright at (sub)millimetre wavelengths are undergoing violent episodes of star formation5,6,7,8, and there is evidence that they are preferentially associated with high-redshift radio galaxies9, so the question of whether they are also associated with the most significant large-scale structure growing at high redshift (as outlined by Lyman-α emitters) naturally arises. Here we report an imaging survey of 1,100-μm emission in the SSA 22 region. We find an enhancement of submillimetre galaxies near the core of the protocluster, and a large-scale correlation between the submillimetre galaxies and the low-mass Lyman-α emitters, suggesting synchronous formation of the two very different types of star-forming galaxy within the same structure at high redshift. These results are in general agreement with our understanding of the formation of cosmic structure.
Your institute does not have access to this article
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Gawiser, E. et al. Lyα-emitting galaxies at z = 3.1: L* progenitors experiencing rapid star formation. Astrophys. J. 671, 278–284 (2007)
Pirzkal, N. et al. Optical-to-mid-infrared observations of Lyα galaxies at z ≈ 5 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: a young and low-mass population. Astrophys. J. 667, 49–59 (2007)
Steidel, C. C. et al. A large structure of galaxies at redshift z ∼ 3 and its cosmological implications. Astrophys. J. 492, 428–438 (1998)
Hayashino, T. et al. Large-scale structure of emission-line galaxies at z = 3.1. Astron. J. 128, 2073–2079 (2004)
Smail, I., Ivison, R. J. & Blain, A. W. A deep sub-millimeter survey of lensing clusters: a new window on galaxy formation and evolution. Astrophys. J. 490, L5–L8 (1997)
Hughes, D. H. et al. High-redshift star formation in the Hubble Deep Field revealed by a submillimetre-wavelength survey. Nature 394, 241–247 (1998)
Barger, A. J. et al. Submillimetre-wavelength detection of dusty star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Nature 394, 248–251 (1998)
Blain, A. W. et al. Submillimeter galaxies. Phys. Rep. 369, 111–176 (2002)
Stevens, J. A. et al. The formation of cluster elliptical galaxies as revealed by extensive star formation. Nature 425, 264–267 (2003)
Solomon, P. M. & Vanden Bout, P. A. Molecular gas at high redshift. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 43, 677–725 (2005)
Eales, S. et al. The Canada-UK deep submillimeter survey: first submillimeter images, the source counts, and resolution of the background. Astrophys. J. 515, 518–524 (1999)
Le Fèvre, O. et al. Clustering around the radio galaxy MRC 0316–257 at z = 3.14. Astrophys. J. 471, L11–L14 (1996)
Wilson, G. W. et al. The AzTEC mm-wavelength camera. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 807–818 (2008)
Ezawa, H., Kawabe, R., Kohno, K. & Yamamoto, S. The Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Proc. SPIE 5489, 763–772 (2004)
Chapman, S. C. et al. The properties of microjansky radio sources in the Hubble Deep Field-North, SSA 13, and SSA 22 Fields. Astrophys. J. 585, 57–66 (2003)
Blain, A. W. et al. Clustering of submillimeter-selected galaxies. Astrophys. J. 611, 725–731 (2004)
Scott, S. et al. A combined re-analysis of existing blank-field SCUBA surveys: comparative 850-μm source lists, combined number counts, and evidence for strong clustering of the bright submillimetre galaxy population on arcminute scales. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 370, 1057–1105 (2006)
Matsuda, Y. et al. Large-scale filamentary structure around the protocluster at redshift z = 3.1. Astrophys. J. 634, L125–L128 (2005)
Laurent, G. T. et al. The Bolocam Lockman Hole millimeter-wave galaxy survey: galaxy candidates and number counts. Astrophys. J. 623, 742–762 (2005)
Almaini, O. et al. Correlations between bright submillimeter sources and low-redshift galaxies. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 358, 875–882 (2005)
Austermann, J. E. et al. AzTEC millimetre survey of the COSMOS field - II. Source count overdensity and correlations with large-scale structure. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (in the press); preprint at 〈http://arxiv.org/abs/0812.0814〉 (2008)
Chapman, S. C. et al. A redshift survey of the submillimeter galaxy population. Astrophys. J. 622, 772–796 (2005)
Dunne, L. et al. A census of metals at high and low redshift and the connection between submillimeter sources and spheroid formation. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 341, 589–598 (2003)
Webb, T. M. A. et al. Deep submillimeter observations of two Lyα-emitting galaxies at z ∼ 6.5. Astrophys. J. 659, 76–83 (2007)
Boone, F. et al. Millimeter observations of HCM 6A, a gravitationally lensed Lyα emitting galaxy at z = 6.56. Astron. Astrophys. 475, 513–517 (2007)
Mo, H. J. & White, S. D. M. An analytic model for the spatial clustering of dark matter haloes. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 282, 347–361 (1996)
Cole, S. et al. Hierarchical galaxy formation. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 319, 168–204 (2000)
Scott, K. S. et al. AzTEC millimetre survey of the COSMOS field - I. Data reduction and source catalogue. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 385, 2225–2238 (2008)
Landy, S. D. & Szalay, A. S. Bias and variance of angular correlation functions. Astrophys. J. 412, 64–71 (1993)
We acknowledge T. Yamada and T. Hayashino for providing the Lyα emitter catalogue. We are grateful to H. Hirashita, T. Suwa, T. Kodama, M. Sameshima, M. Hayashi, T. T. Takeuchi and S. Komugi for discussions. We thank M. Uehara and the ASTE and AzTEC staff for their support. The ASTE project is led by Nobeyama Radio Observatory, in collaboration with the University of Chile, the University of Tokyo, Nagoya University, Osaka Prefecture University, Ibaraki University, and Hokkaido University. This work is based in part on archival data obtained with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.
Author Contributions K.N., Y.T., T. Takata, K.K. and R.K. designed and proposed the survey. Y.T., K.K., K.N., B.H., D.I. and T. Tosaki conducted the observing runs for two months. G.W.W., T.A.P., J.E.A. and K.S.S. developed the AzTEC instrument and the fundamental AzTEC reduction pipeline. H.E., D.H.H., I.A, T.O., N.Y. and K.T. contributed to the operation of AzTEC and ASTE during the survey. Y.T. and B.H. processed the raw AzTEC data, carried out simulations to create a source catalogue and computed the correlation functions. M.S.Y. and A.C. processed the Very Large Array 20-cm data. Y.M. provided the Lyα emitter catalogue and contributed to discussions, especially on Lyα emitters. All the authors discussed the results.
About this article
Cite this article
Tamura, Y., Kohno, K., Nakanishi, K. et al. Spatial correlation between submillimetre and Lyman-α galaxies in the SSA 22 protocluster. Nature 459, 61–63 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07947
Astrophysics and Space Science (2010)