Near-infrared observations of more than a dozen ‘hot-Jupiter’ extrasolar planets have now been reported1,2,3,4,5. These planets display a wide diversity of properties, yet all are believed to have had their spin periods tidally spin-synchronized with their orbital periods, resulting in permanent star-facing hemispheres and surface flow patterns that are most likely in equilibrium. Planets in significantly eccentric orbits can enable direct measurements of global heating that are largely independent of the details of the hydrodynamic flow6. Here we report 8-μm photometric observations of the planet HD 80606b during a 30-hour interval bracketing the periastron passage of its extremely eccentric 111.4-day orbit. As the planet received its strongest irradiation (828 times larger than the flux received at apastron) its maximum 8-μm brightness temperature increased from ∼800 K to ∼1,500 K over a six-hour period. We also detected a secondary eclipse for the planet, which implies an orbital inclination of i ≈ 90°, fixes the planetary mass at four times the mass of Jupiter, and constrains the planet’s tidal luminosity. Our measurement of the global heating rate indicates that the radiative time constant at the planet’s 8-μm photosphere is ∼4.5 h, in comparison with 3–5 days in Earth’s stratosphere7.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Space Science Reviews Open Access 01 December 2020
Experimental Astronomy Open Access 11 September 2018
The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review Open Access 26 October 2013
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Deming, D., Seager, S., Richardson, L. J. & Harrington, J. Infrared radiation from an extrasolar planet. Nature 434, 740–743 (2005)
Charbonneau, D. et al. Detection of thermal emission from an extrasolar planet. Astrophys. J. 626, 523–529 (2005)
Deming, D., Harrington, J., Seager, S. & Richardson, L. J. Strong infrared emission from the extrasolar planet HD 189733b. Astrophys. J. 644, 560–564 (2006)
Knutson, H. A. et al. A map of the day-night contrast of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b. Nature 447, 183–186 (2007)
Grillmair, C. J. et al. A Spitzer spectrum of the exoplanet HD 189733b. Astrophys. J. 658, L115–L118 (2007)
Langton, J. & Laughlin, G. Hydrodynamic simulations of unevenly irradiated Jovian planets. Astrophys. J. 674, 1106–1116 (2007)
Salby, M. L. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics 248 (Academic, 1996)
Naef, D. et al. HD 80606b, a planet on an extremely elongated orbit. Astron. Astrophys. 375, L27–L30 (2001)
Wu, Y. & Murray, N. Planet migration and binary companions: The case of HD 80606b. Astrophys. J. 589, 605–614 (2003)
Goldreich, P. & Soter, S. Q in the solar system. Icarus 5, 375–389 (1965)
Peale, S. J. Origin and evolution of the natural satellites. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 37, 533–602 (1999)
Werner, M. W. et al. The Spitzer Space Telescope mission. Astrophys. J. 154 (Suppl.). 1–9 (2004)
Fazio, G. G. et al. The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) for the Spitzer Space Telescope. Astrophys. J. 154 (Suppl.). 10–17 (2004)
Cho, J. Y.-K., Menou, K., Hansen, B. M. S. & Seager, S. The changing face of the extrasolar giant planet HD 209458b. Astrophys. J. 587, L117–L120 (2003)
Burkert, A., Lin, D. N. C., Bodenheimer, P. H., Jones, C. A. & Yorke, H. W. On the surface heating of synchronously spinning short-period Jovian planets. Astrophys. J. 618, 512–523 (2005)
Showman, A. P., Cooper, C. S., Fortney, J. J. & Marley, M. S. Atmospheric circulation of hot Jupiters: Three-dimensional circulation models of HD 209458b and HD189733b with simplified forcing. Astrophys. J. 618, 559–576 (2008)
Langton, J. & Laughlin, G. A new atmospheric model for HD 189733b. Astrophys. J (submitted)
Bodenheimer, P., Laughlin, G. & Lin, D. On the radii of extrasolar giant planets. Astrophys. J. 592, 555–563 (2003)
Hut, P. Tidal evolution in close binary systems. Astron. Astrophys. 99, 126–140 (1981)
Ivanov, P. B. & Papaloizou, J. C. B. Dynamic tides in rotating objects: orbital circularization of extrasolar planets for realistic planet models. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 376, 682–704 (2007)
Press, W. H., Teukolsky, S. A., Vetterling, W. T. & Flannery, B. P. Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN. The Art of Scientific Computing 2nd edn (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992)
Fortney, J. J., Lodders, K., Marley, M. S. & Freedman, R. S. A unified theory for the atmospheres of the hot and very hot Jupiters: Two classes of irradiated atmospheres. Astrophys. J. 678, 1419–1435 (2008)
Rowe, J. F. et al. The very low albedo of an extrasolar planet: MOST spacebased photometry of HD 209458. Astrophys. J. (submitted); preprint at 〈http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.4111〉 (2007)
Queloz, D. et al. Detection of a spectroscopic transit by the planet orbiting the star HD 209458. Astron. Astrophys. 359, L13–L17 (2000)
Winn, J. et al. Measurement of spin-orbit alignment in an extrasolar planetary system. Astrophys. J. 631, 1215–1226 (2000)
We thank P. Bodenheimer, D. Charbonneau, J. Fortney, N. Iro and H. Knutson for discussions. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), under contract to NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.
About this article
Cite this article
Laughlin, G., Deming, D., Langton, J. et al. Rapid heating of the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet. Nature 457, 562–564 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07649
This article is cited by
Nature Astronomy (2022)
Experimental Astronomy (2022)
Nature Astronomy (2020)
Space Science Reviews (2020)
Experimental Astronomy (2018)