Letter | Published:

A role for self-gravity at multiple length scales in the process of star formation

Nature volume 457, pages 6366 (01 January 2009) | Download Citation

Subjects

Abstract

Self-gravity plays a decisive role in the final stages of star formation, where dense cores (size 0.1 parsecs) inside molecular clouds collapse to form star-plus-disk systems1. But self-gravity’s role at earlier times (and on larger length scales, such as 1 parsec) is unclear; some molecular cloud simulations that do not include self-gravity suggest that ‘turbulent fragmentation’ alone is sufficient to create a mass distribution of dense cores that resembles, and sets, the stellar initial mass function2. Here we report a ‘dendrogram’ (hierarchical tree-diagram) analysis that reveals that self-gravity plays a significant role over the full range of possible scales traced by 13CO observations in the L1448 molecular cloud, but not everywhere in the observed region. In particular, more than 90 per cent of the compact ‘pre-stellar cores’ traced by peaks of dust emission3 are projected on the sky within one of the dendrogram’s self-gravitating ‘leaves’. As these peaks mark the locations of already-forming stars, or of those probably about to form, a self-gravitating cocoon seems a critical condition for their existence. Turbulent fragmentation simulations without self-gravity—even of unmagnetized isothermal material—can yield mass and velocity power spectra very similar to what is observed in clouds like L1448. But a dendrogram of such a simulation4 shows that nearly all the gas in it (much more than in the observations) appears to be self-gravitating. A potentially significant role for gravity in ‘non-self-gravitating’ simulations suggests inconsistency in simulation assumptions and output, and that it is necessary to include self-gravity in any realistic simulation of the star-formation process on subparsec scales.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    et al. in Protostars and Planets V (eds Reipurth, B., Jewitt, D. & Keil, K.) 17– 32 (Univ. Arizona Press, 2006)

  2. 2.

    & The stellar initial mass function from turbulent fragmentation. Astrophys. J. 576, 870– 879 (2002)

  3. 3.

    et al. Bolocam survey for 1.1 mm dust continuum emission in the c2d legacy clouds. I. Perseus. Astrophys. J. 638, 293– 313 (2006)

  4. 4.

    , , & The power spectrum of supersonic turbulence in Perseus. Astrophys. J. 653, L125– L128 (2006)

  5. 5.

    Turbulence and star formation in molecular clouds. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 194, 809– 826 (1981)

  6. 6.

    & High spatial resolution isotopic CO and CS observations of M17 SW: The clumpy structure of the molecular cloud core. Astrophys. J. 356, 513– 515 (1990)

  7. 7.

    , & Determining structure in molecular clouds. Astrophys. J. 428, 693– 712 (1994)

  8. 8.

    et al. The COMPLETE survey of star-forming regions: Phase I data. Astron. J. 131, 2921– 2933 (2006)

  9. 9.

    & Recognition and characterization of hierarchical interstellar structure. II - Structure tree statistics. Astrophys. J. 393, 172– 187 (1992)

  10. 10.

    , , & Structural analysis of molecular clouds: Dendrograms. Astrophys. J. 679, 1338– 1351 (2008)

  11. 11.

    , , , & Visualization of barrier tree sequences. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 12, 781– 788 (2006)

  12. 12.

    , & Visualizing business data with generalized treemaps. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 12, 789– 796 (2006)

  13. 13.

    & The merging history of dark matter haloes in a hierarchical universe. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 261, 921– 928 (1993)

  14. 14.

    et al. The COMPLETE structure of L1448: Where (and why) dense cores do form. Astrophys. J. (submitted)

  15. 15.

    , & CO isotopologues in the Perseus molecular cloud complex: the X-factor and regional variations. Astrophys. J. 679, 481– 496 (2008)

  16. 16.

    & Pressure-confined clumps in magnetized molecular clouds. Astrophys. J. 395, 140– 157 (1992)

  17. 17.

    , & Density, velocity, and magnetic field structure in turbulent molecular clouds. Astrophys. J. 546, 980– 1005 (2001)

  18. 18.

    , & The “true” column density distribution in star-forming molecular clouds. Astrophys. J. (in the press); preprint at 〈〉 (2008)

  19. 19.

    et al. An ammonia spectral atlas of dense cores in Perseus. Astrophys. J. 175 (Suppl.). 509– 521 (2008)

  20. 20.

    et al. Current star formation in the Ophiuchus and Perseus molecular clouds: constraints and comparisons from unbiased submillimeter and mid-infrared surveys. II. Astrophys. J. 683, 822– 843 (2008)

  21. 21.

    & Cloudshine: New light on dark clouds. Astrophys. J. 636, L105– L108 (2006)

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank A. Munshi for putting us in touch with M. Thomas and colleagues at Right Hemisphere, whose software and assistance enabled the interactive PDF in this paper; P. Padoan for providing the simulated data cube; R. Shetty for comments on the paper; F. Shu for suggesting we extend our analysis to measure boundedness of ppv ‘bound’ objects in ppp space using simulations; and S. Hyman, Provost of Harvard University, for supporting the start-up of the Initiative in Innovative Computing at Harvard, which substantially enabled the creation of this work. 3D Slicer is developed by the National Alliance for Medical Image Computing and funded by the National Institutes of Health grant U54-EB005149. The COMPLETE group is supported in part by the National Science Foundation. E.W.R. is supported by the NSF AST-0502605.

Author Contributions The dendrogram algorithm and software was created by E.W.R. The interactive figures were assembled by M.A.B., J.K. and M.H. using software from Right Hemisphere and Adobe. J.K. and M.H. worked to allow 3D Slicer to plot the surfaces relevant to the dendrograms shown in the 3D figures. J.B.F. produced Fig. 1, and J.E.P. carried out the ‘CLUMPFINDing’ analysis shown in Fig. 2 and Supplementary Fig. 1. A.A.G. wrote most of the text, and all authors contributed their thoughts to the discussions and analysis that led to this work.

Author information

Author notes

    • Michelle A. Borkin

    Present address: School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

Affiliations

  1. Initiative in Innovative Computing at Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

    • Alyssa A. Goodman
    • , Michelle A. Borkin
    • , Michael Halle
    •  & Jens Kauffmann
  2. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

    • Alyssa A. Goodman
    • , Erik W. Rosolowsky
    • , Jonathan B. Foster
    • , Jens Kauffmann
    •  & Jaime E. Pineda
  3. Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7, Canada

    • Erik W. Rosolowsky
  4. Surgical Planning Laboratory and Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA

    • Michael Halle

Authors

  1. Search for Alyssa A. Goodman in:

  2. Search for Erik W. Rosolowsky in:

  3. Search for Michelle A. Borkin in:

  4. Search for Jonathan B. Foster in:

  5. Search for Michael Halle in:

  6. Search for Jens Kauffmann in:

  7. Search for Jaime E. Pineda in:

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alyssa A. Goodman.

The 3D Slicer software used to create the surface renderings is available at http://am.iic.harvard.edu/.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Information

    This file contains Supplementary Figures 1-4, Supplementary Methods, Supplementary Table 1, a Supplementary Discussion, Supplementary Notes and Supplementary References

  2. 2.

    PDF 3D version

    This PDF is the 3D version. Requires Acrobat 8 or above.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07609

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.