Cancer-related inflammation

Abstract

The mediators and cellular effectors of inflammation are important constituents of the local environment of tumours. In some types of cancer, inflammatory conditions are present before a malignant change occurs. Conversely, in other types of cancer, an oncogenic change induces an inflammatory microenvironment that promotes the development of tumours. Regardless of its origin, 'smouldering' inflammation in the tumour microenvironment has many tumour-promoting effects. It aids in the proliferation and survival of malignant cells, promotes angiogenesis and metastasis, subverts adaptive immune responses, and alters responses to hormones and chemotherapeutic agents. The molecular pathways of this cancer-related inflammation are now being unravelled, resulting in the identification of new target molecules that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment.

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Figure 1: Pathways that connect inflammation and cancer.
Figure 2: Oncogenes and cancer-related inflammation.
Figure 3: Hormones and inflammation.
Figure 4: Inflammation and the malignant progression of epithelial tumours.

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Acknowledgements

A.M., P.A. and A.S. are supported by the Italian Association for Cancer Research, the Italian Ministry of Health, the Italian Ministry of Universities and Research, and the European Commission. F.B. is supported by Cancer Research UK, the Medical Research Council, the Association for International Cancer Research and the Higher Education Funding Council for England.

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Correspondence should be addressed to A.M. (alberto.mantovani@humanitas.it).

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Mantovani, A., Allavena, P., Sica, A. et al. Cancer-related inflammation. Nature 454, 436–444 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07205

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