Heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere of Mars

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Abstract

Hydrogen radicals are produced in the martian atmosphere by the photolysis of water vapour and subsequently initiate catalytic cycles that recycle carbon dioxide from its photolysis product carbon monoxide1,2. These processes provide a qualitative explanation for the stability of the atmosphere of Mars, which contains 95 per cent carbon dioxide. Balancing carbon dioxide production and loss based on our current understanding of the gas-phase chemistry in the martian atmosphere has, however, proven to be difficult3,4,5. Interactions between gaseous chemical species and ice cloud particles have been shown to be key factors in the loss of polar ozone observed in the Earth’s stratosphere6, and may significantly perturb the chemistry of the Earth’s upper troposphere7. Water-ice clouds are also commonly observed in the atmosphere of Mars8,9,10 and it has been suggested previously that heterogeneous chemistry could have an important impact on the composition of the martian atmosphere3,4,5,11. Here we use a state-of-the-art general circulation model together with new observations of the martian ozone layer12,13,14,15 to show that model simulations that include chemical reactions occurring on ice clouds lead to much improved quantitative agreement with observed martian ozone levels in comparison with model simulations based on gas-phase chemistry alone. Ozone is readily destroyed by hydrogen radicals and is therefore a sensitive tracer of the chemistry that regulates the atmosphere of Mars. Our results suggest that heterogeneous chemistry on ice clouds plays an important role in controlling the stability and composition of the martian atmosphere.

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Figure 1: Observed and simulated seasonal evolution of water vapour and water-ice clouds.
Figure 2: Observed and simulated seasonal evolution of martian ozone.
Figure 3: Synoptic distribution of O 3 column (micrometre atmosphere) calculated in northern spring and at aphelion.
Figure 4: Observed and simulated seasonal evolution of martian hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

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Acknowledgements

Much of this work was done while F.L. was on leave from CNRS at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (Granada, Spain). We thank M. Smith, who provided the TES data.

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Correspondence to Franck Lefèvre.

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Supplementary Information

The file contains Supplementary Notes and related Supplementary Figures 1-3 with Legends. (PDF 854 kb)

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