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Venus as a more Earth-like planet

Abstract

Venus is Earth’s near twin in mass and radius, and our nearest planetary neighbour, yet conditions there are very different in many respects. Its atmosphere, mostly composed of carbon dioxide, has a surface temperature and pressure far higher than those of Earth. Only traces of water are found, although it is likely that there was much more present in the past, possibly forming Earth-like oceans. Here we discuss how the first year of observations by Venus Express brings into focus the evolutionary paths by which the climates of two similar planets diverged from common beginnings to such extremes. These include a CO2-driven greenhouse effect, erosion of the atmosphere by solar particles and radiation, surface–atmosphere interactions, and atmospheric circulation regimes defined by differing planetary rotation rates.

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Figure 1: The Venus Express spacecraft.
Figure 2: Schematic view of the general circulation of Venus’s atmosphere.
Figure 3: Atmospheric composition from the Venus Express observations.
Figure 4: The plasma environment of Venus as determined by Venus Express.

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Acknowledgements

We thank R. Hueso and J. Bailey for the provision of graphics and data for Fig. 2b, and E. Marcq, C. Tsang, P. Drossart and J.-L. Bertaux for providing data for Fig. 3.

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Correspondence to Håkan Svedhem.

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Svedhem, H., Titov, D., Taylor, F. et al. Venus as a more Earth-like planet. Nature 450, 629–632 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06432

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