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Genome-wide maps of chromatin state in pluripotent and lineage-committed cells


We report the application of single-molecule-based sequencing technology for high-throughput profiling of histone modifications in mammalian cells. By obtaining over four billion bases of sequence from chromatin immunoprecipitated DNA, we generated genome-wide chromatin-state maps of mouse embryonic stem cells, neural progenitor cells and embryonic fibroblasts. We find that lysine 4 and lysine 27 trimethylation effectively discriminates genes that are expressed, poised for expression, or stably repressed, and therefore reflect cell state and lineage potential. Lysine 36 trimethylation marks primary coding and non-coding transcripts, facilitating gene annotation. Trimethylation of lysine 9 and lysine 20 is detected at satellite, telomeric and active long-terminal repeats, and can spread into proximal unique sequences. Lysine 4 and lysine 9 trimethylation marks imprinting control regions. Finally, we show that chromatin state can be read in an allele-specific manner by using single nucleotide polymorphisms. This study provides a framework for the application of comprehensive chromatin profiling towards characterization of diverse mammalian cell populations.

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Figure 1: Comparison of ChIP-Seq and ChIP-chip data.
Figure 2: Histone trimethylation state predicts expression of HCPs and LCPs.
Figure 3: Cell-type-specific chromatin marks at promoters.
Figure 4: Correlation between chromatin-state changes and lineage expression.
Figure 5: H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 annotate genes and non-coding RNA transcripts.
Figure 6: Allele-specific histone methylation and genic H3K9me3/H4K20me3.

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We thank S. Fisher, M. Kellis, B. Birren and M. Zody for technical assistance and constructive discussions. We acknowledge L. Zagachin in the MGH Nucleic Acid Quantitation core for assistance with real-time PCR. E.M. was supported by an institutional training grant from NIH. M.W. was supported by fellowships from the Human Frontiers Science Organization Program and the Ellison Foundation. This research was supported by funds from the National Human Genome Research Institute, the National Cancer Institute, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.

All analysed data sets can be obtained from Microarray data have been submitted to the GEO repository under accession number GSE8024.

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Correspondence to Eric S. Lander or Bradley E. Bernstein.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

This file contains Supplementary Notes which includes the ChIP-Seq read requirement, genome coverage and accuracy and Supplementary Figures 1-10 with Legends (PDF 9260 kb)

Supplementary Table 1

This file contains Supplementary Table 1 which includes the list of datasets analyzed. (XLS 15 kb)

Supplementary Table 2

This file contains Supplementary Table 2 which includes the primers for RT-PCR validation of ChIP-Seq. (XLS 24 kb)

Supplementary Table 3

This file contains Supplementary Table 3 which includes the list of analyzed promoters and their chromatin state in ES cells, neural progenitors and embryonic fibroblasts. (XLS 3206 kb)

Supplementary Table 4

This file contains Supplementary Table 4 which includes the expression levels for analyzed genes in ES cells, neural progenitors and embryonic fibroblasts. (XLS 2070 kb)

Supplementary Table 5

This file contains Supplementary Table 5 which includes the Gene Ontology categories associated with monovalent and bivalent promoters in ES cells. (XLS 35 kb)

Supplementary Table 6

This file contains Supplementary Table 6 which includes the chromatin state of promoters associated with known regulators or markers of differentiated cell types (XLS 23 kb)

Supplementary Table 7

This file contains Supplementary Table 7 which includes the allelic bias observed at verified or putative imprinting control regions. (XLS 21 kb)

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Mikkelsen, T., Ku, M., Jaffe, D. et al. Genome-wide maps of chromatin state in pluripotent and lineage-committed cells. Nature 448, 553–560 (2007).

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