World Health Organization. Global Prevalence and Incidence of Selected Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and Estimates (WHO, Geneva, 2001).
World Health Organization. Projections of Mortality and Burden of Disease to 2030 (WHO, Geneva, 2005).
World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia. Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Prevalence Study. Report No. SEA-STD-41 (WHO, Geneva, 2001).
Mehmet, G. & Ledger, W. J.
Syphilis in pregnancy. Sex Transm. Infect.
76, 73–79 (2000).
Peeling, R. W. & Ye, H.
Diagnostic tools for preventing and managing maternal and congenital syphilis: an overview. Bull. World Health Organ.
82, 439–446 (2004).
Chesson, H. W. & Pinkerton, S. D.
Sexually transmitted diseases and the increased risk for HIV transmission: implications for cost-effectiveness analyses of sexually transmitted disease prevention interventions. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
24, 48–56 (2000).
Cohen, M. S.
et al. Reduction of concentration of HIV-1 in semen after treatment of urethritis: implications for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV-1. Lancet
349, 1868–1873 (1997).
Fleming, D. T. & Wasserheit, J. N.
From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sex Transm. Infect.
75, 3–17 (1999).
et al. Non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases as risk factors for HIV-1 transmission in women: results from a cohort study. AIDS
7, 93–102 (1993).
Quinn, T. C.
Association of sexually transmitted diseases and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus: biological cofactors and markers of behavior interventions. Int. J. STD AIDS
7, 17–24 (1996).
et al. Clinical algorithms for the screening of women for gonococcal and chlamydial infection: evaluation of pregnant women and prostitutes in Zaire. Clin. Infect. Dis.
17, 82–88 (1993).
World Health Organization. Draft Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections 2005–2010: Breaking the Chain of Transmission. WHO/RHR/05.16 (WHO, Geneva, 2005).
Dallabetta, G. A. & Gerbase, A. C.
Problems, solutions, and challenges in syndromic management of sexually transmitted diseases. Sex. Transm. Infect.
74, S1–S11 (1998).
Dallabetta, G. A., Laga, M. & Lamptey, P. L. in Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Handbook for the Design and Management of Programs (AIDSCAP/Family Health International, Arlington, Virginia, 1996).
et al. Syndrome packets and health worker training improve sexually transmitted disease case management in rural South Africa: randomized controlled trial. AIDS
14, 2769–2779 (2000).
et al. Validation of national algorithms for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases in Brazil: results from a multicentre study. Sex. Transm. Infect.
74 (suppl. 1), S38–S43 (1998).
Rottingen, J. A., Cameron, D. W. & Garnett, G. P.
A systematic review of the epidemiologic interactions between classic sexually transmitted diseases and HIV: how much really is known?
Sex. Transm. Dis.
28, 579–597 (2001).
Gloyd, S., Chai, S. & Mercer, M. A.
Antenatal syphilis in sub-Saharan Africa: missed opportunities for mortality reduction. Health Policy Plan.
16, 29–34 (2001).
Guidelines for serological testing for syphilis. Sex. Transm. Infect.
76, 403–405 (2000).
Hook, E. W. I. & Peeling, R. W.
Syphilis control a continuing challenge. N. Engl. J. Med.
351, 122–124 (2004).
et al. Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease by screening for cervical chlamydial infection. N. Engl. J. Med.
334, 1362–1366 (1996).
Vickerman, P., Watts, C., Alary, M., Mabey, D. & Peeling, R. W.
Sensitivity requirements for the point of care diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in women. Sex. Transm. Infect.
79, 363–367 (2003).
Hook, E. W. & Handsfield, H. H. in Sexually Transmitted Diseases (eds Holmes, K.K. et al.) 451–466 (McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division, New York, 1999).
World Health Organization. Laboratory Tests for the Detection of Reproductive Tract Infections (WHO, Geneva, 1999).
World Health Organization. Guidelines for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (WHO, Geneva, 2003).
Koumans, E. H., Johnson, R. E., Knapp, J. S. & St. Louis, M. E.
Laboratory testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by recently introduced nonculture tests: a performance review with clinical and public health considerations. Clin. Infect. Dis.
27, 1171–1180 (1998).
Gift, T. L., Pate, M. S., Hook, E. W. & Kassler, W. J.
The rapid test paradox: when fewer cases detected lead to more cases treated: a decision analysis of tests for Chlamydia trachomatis
. Sex. Transm. Dis.
26, 232–240 (1999).
Peeling, R. W. in Program and Abstracts of the 45th Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Abstract 1333 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, 2005).
Haberland, N., Winikoff, B., Sloan, N., Coggins, C. & Elias, C.
Case Finding and Case Management of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infections among Women: What we Do and Do Not Know. (The Population Council, Inc., New York, 1999).
et al. Developing and interpreting models to improve diagnostics in developing countries. Nature
S1, 3–8 (2006).
Aledort, J. E., Rafael, M. E. & Shea, M.
A Technical Report: Reducing the Burden of Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV/AIDS in Resource Poor Countries: the Role of Improved Diagnostics for Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia. WR-415-HLTH (RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, 2006).
Aledort, J. E., Shea, M. & Girosi, F.
A Technical Report: Estimating the Health Impact of New Antenatal Syphilis Screening Diagnostics in Africa. WR-416-HLTH (RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, 2006).
et al. Is antenatal syphilis screening still cost effective in sub-Saharan Africa. Sex. Transm. Infect.
79, 375–381 (2003).
et al. Syphilis in pregnancy in Tanzania. I. Impact of maternal syphilis on outcome of pregnancy. J. Infect. Dis.
186, 940–947 (2002).
et al. Decline in the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases among female sex workers in Cotonou, Benin, 1993–1999. AIDS
16, 463–470 (2002).
et al. Improvement of clinical algorithms for the diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by the use of Gram-stained smears among female sex workers in Accra, Ghana. Sex. Transm. Dis.
27, 401–410 (2000).
Diallo, M. O.
et al. Evaluation of simple diagnostic algorithms for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections in female sex workers in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Sex. Transm. Infect.
74 (suppl. 1), S106–S101 (1998).
et al. Evaluation of a screening algorithm for the diagnosis of genital infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis among female sexworkers in Benin. Sex. Transm. Dis.
24, 109–115 (1997).
Kilmarx, P. H.
et al. in XI International Conference on AIDS (Vancouver, British Columbia, 1996).
et al. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections in female prostitutes in Dakar, Senegal. Sex. Transm. Infect.
74 (suppl. 1), S112–S117 (1998).
et al. Sexually transmitted infections among brothel-based sex workers in Bangladesh: high prevalence of asymptomatic infection. Sex. Transm. Dis.
32, 13–19 (2005).
et al. High prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in a rural area in Mozambique. Genitourin. Med.
69, 427–430 (1993).
et al. Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world. Sex. Transm. Infect.
s82, iii18–iii25 (2006).
Murray, C. & Lopez, A. (eds) The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020 (Harvard Univ. Press on behalf of the WHO and the World Bank, Cambridge, 1996).
et al. Are targeted HIV prevention activities still cost-effective in high prevalence settings? Results from an STI treatment intervention for sex-workers in Hillbrow, South Africa. Sex. Transm. Dis.
33, S122–S132 (2006).
Vickerman, P., Watts, C., Peeling, R. W., Mabey, D. & Alary, M.
Modeling the cost-effectiveness of rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests for the control of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections amongst female sex workers. Sex. Transm. Infect.
82, 403–412 (2006).
Manning, W., Fryback, D. & Weinstein, M. in Cost Effectiveness in Health and Medicine (eds Gold, M., Siegel, J., Russell, L. & Weinstein, M.) 247–275 (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1996).
Hayes, R. J., Schulz, K. F. & Plummer, F. A.
The cofactor effect of genital ulcers on the per-exposure risk of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
98, 1–8 (1995).
Fitzgerald, D. W., Behets, F. M., Lucet, C. & Roberfroid, D.
Prevalence, burden, and control of syphilis in Haiti's rural Artibonite region. Int. J. Infect. Dis.
2, 127–131 (1998).
et al. Syphilis in pregnancy in Tanzania. II. The effectiveness of antenatal syphilis screening and single-dose benzathine penicillin treatment for the prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes. J. Infect. Dis.
186, 948–957 (2002).
Finelli, L., Berman, S. M., Koumans, E. H. & Levine, W. C.
Congenital syphilis. Bull. World Health Organ.
76 (suppl. 2), 126–128 (1998).
Bollen, L. J. M.
et al. in 16th Biennial Meeting of the International Society for STD Research (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2005).
Gerbase, A. C., Rowley, J. T. & Mertens, T. E.
Global epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Lancet
351 (suppl. 3), 2–4 (1998).
et al. Risk assessment and other screening options for gonorrhoea and chlamydial infections in women attending rural Tanzanian antenatal clinics. Bull. World Health Organ.
73, 621–630 (1995).
et al. Validation of a WHO algorithm with risk assessment for the clinical management of vaginal discharge in Mwanza, Tanzania. Sex. Transm. Infect.
74 (suppl. 1), S77–S84 (1998).
Pettifor, A., Walsh, J., Wilkins, V. & Raghunathan, P.
How effective is syndromic management of STDs? A review of current studies. Sex. Transm. Dis.
27, 371–385 (2000).
Vuylsteke, B. L.
et al. Assessment of the validity of and adherence to sexually transmitted infection algorithms at a female sex worker clinic in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Sex. Transm. Dis.
30, 284–291 (2003).