Letter | Published:

Quantum teleportation between light and matter

Nature volume 443, pages 557560 (05 October 2006) | Download Citation

Subjects

Abstract

Quantum teleportation1 is an important ingredient in distributed quantum networks2, and can also serve as an elementary operation in quantum computers3. Teleportation was first demonstrated as a transfer of a quantum state of light onto another light beam4,5,6; later developments used optical relays7 and demonstrated entanglement swapping for continuous variables8. The teleportation of a quantum state between two single material particles (trapped ions) has now also been achieved9,10. Here we demonstrate teleportation between objects of a different nature—light and matter, which respectively represent ‘flying’ and ‘stationary’ media. A quantum state encoded in a light pulse is teleported onto a macroscopic object (an atomic ensemble containing 1012 caesium atoms). Deterministic teleportation is achieved for sets of coherent states with mean photon number (n) up to a few hundred. The fidelities are 0.58 ± 0.02 for n = 20 and 0.60 ± 0.02 for n = 5—higher than any classical state transfer can possibly achieve11. Besides being of fundamental interest, teleportation using a macroscopic atomic ensemble is relevant for the practical implementation of a quantum repeater2. An important factor for the implementation of quantum networks is the teleportation distance between transmitter and receiver; this is 0.5 metres in the present experiment. As our experiment uses propagating light to achieve the entanglement of light and atoms required for teleportation, the present approach should be scalable to longer distances.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    et al. Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993)

  2. 2.

    , , & Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998)

  3. 3.

    & Demonstrating the viability of universal quantum computation using teleportation and single-qubit operations. Nature 402, 390–393 (1999)

  4. 4.

    et al. Experimental quantum teleportation. Nature 390, 575–579 (1997)

  5. 5.

    , , , & Experimental realization of teleporting an unknown pure quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1121–1125 (1998)

  6. 6.

    et al. Unconditional quantum teleportation. Sci. Tech. Froid 282, 706–709 (1998)

  7. 7.

    et al. Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004)

  8. 8.

    , , & High-fidelity teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 220502 (2005)

  9. 9.

    et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits. Nature 429, 737–739 (2004)

  10. 10.

    et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms. Nature 429, 734–737 (2004)

  11. 11.

    , , & Quantum benchmark for storage and transmission of coherent states. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150503 (2005)

  12. 12.

    , & Teleportation and spin squeezing utilizing multimode entanglement of light with atoms. Phys. Rev. A 72, 052313 (2005)

  13. 13.

    Teleportation of quantum states. Phys. Rev. A 49, 1473–1476 (1994)

  14. 14.

    , , , & Experimental demonstration of quantum memory for light. Nature 432, 482–486 (2004)

  15. 15.

    , & Experimental long-lived entanglement of two macroscopic objects. Nature 413, 400–403 (2001)

  16. 16.

    , , & Atomic spins as a storage medium for quantum fluctuations of light. Quant. Inf. Comput. 3 (special issue), 518–534 (2003)

  17. 17.

    , , & Characterizing the spin state of an atomic ensemble using the magneto-optical resonance method. J. Opt. B 6, 5–14 (2004)

  18. 18.

    Sherson, J., Julsgaaard, B. & Polzik, E. S. Deterministic atom-light quantum interface. Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (in the press); preprint at (2006).

  19. 19.

    , , & Single-photon generation from stored excitation in an atomic ensemble. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213601 (2004)

  20. 20.

    et al. Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories. Nature 438, 833–836 (2005)

  21. 21.

    et al. Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses. Nature 438, 837–841 (2005)

  22. 22.

    , & Deterministic single-photon source for distributed quantum networking. Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067901 (2002)

  23. 23.

    et al. Deterministic generation of single photons from one atom trapped in a cavity. Science 303, 1992–1994 (2004)

  24. 24.

    , , , & Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083604 (2006)

  25. 25.

    , & Spectroscopy with squeezed light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020–3023 (1992)

Download references

Acknowledgements

The experiment was performed at the Niels Bohr Institute, and was funded by the Danish National Research Foundation through the Center for Quantum Optics (QUANTOP), by EU grants COVAQIAL and QAP, and by the Carlsberg Foundation. I.C. and E.S.P. acknowledge the hospitality of the Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (ICFO) in Barcelona where ideas leading to this work were first discussed. The permanent address of K.H. is the Institut für theoretische Physik, Innsbruck, Austria.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark

    • Jacob F. Sherson
    • , Hanna Krauter
    • , Rasmus K. Olsson
    • , Brian Julsgaard
    •  & Eugene S. Polzik
  2. Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, Garching, D-85748, Germany

    • Klemens Hammerer
    •  & Ignacio Cirac
  3. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, 8000, Denmark

    • Jacob F. Sherson

Authors

  1. Search for Jacob F. Sherson in:

  2. Search for Hanna Krauter in:

  3. Search for Rasmus K. Olsson in:

  4. Search for Brian Julsgaard in:

  5. Search for Klemens Hammerer in:

  6. Search for Ignacio Cirac in:

  7. Search for Eugene S. Polzik in:

Competing interests

Reprints and permissions information is available at www.nature.com/reprints. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Eugene S. Polzik.

Supplementary information

Word documents

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Methods

    This file contains additional details on the following methods used in this study. Atomic state variances, optimization of classical gains and the fidelity calculation. Projection noise measurement and determination of the coupling constant κ. Atomic decoherence.

  2. 2.

    Supplementary Notes

    Calculation of the fidelity for a qubit teleportation and a protocol with improved fidelity.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05136

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.