Quantum teleportation1 is an important ingredient in distributed quantum networks2, and can also serve as an elementary operation in quantum computers3. Teleportation was first demonstrated as a transfer of a quantum state of light onto another light beam4,5,6; later developments used optical relays7 and demonstrated entanglement swapping for continuous variables8. The teleportation of a quantum state between two single material particles (trapped ions) has now also been achieved9,10. Here we demonstrate teleportation between objects of a different nature—light and matter, which respectively represent ‘flying’ and ‘stationary’ media. A quantum state encoded in a light pulse is teleported onto a macroscopic object (an atomic ensemble containing 1012 caesium atoms). Deterministic teleportation is achieved for sets of coherent states with mean photon number (n) up to a few hundred. The fidelities are 0.58 ± 0.02 for n = 20 and 0.60 ± 0.02 for n = 5—higher than any classical state transfer can possibly achieve11. Besides being of fundamental interest, teleportation using a macroscopic atomic ensemble is relevant for the practical implementation of a quantum repeater2. An important factor for the implementation of quantum networks is the teleportation distance between transmitter and receiver; this is 0.5 metres in the present experiment. As our experiment uses propagating light to achieve the entanglement of light and atoms required for teleportation, the present approach should be scalable to longer distances.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Bennett, C. H. et al. Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993)
Briegel, H. J., Dur, W., Cirac, J. I. & Zoller, P. Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932–5935 (1998)
Gottesman, D. & Chuang, I. Demonstrating the viability of universal quantum computation using teleportation and single-qubit operations. Nature 402, 390–393 (1999)
Bouwmeester, D. et al. Experimental quantum teleportation. Nature 390, 575–579 (1997)
Boschi, D., Branca, S., De Martini, F., Hardy, L. & Popescu, S. Experimental realization of teleporting an unknown pure quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1121–1125 (1998)
Furusawa, A. et al. Unconditional quantum teleportation. Sci. Tech. Froid 282, 706–709 (1998)
de Riedmatten, H. et al. Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047904 (2004)
Takei, N., Yonezawa, H., Aoki, T. & Furusawa, A. High-fidelity teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 220502 (2005)
Barrett, M. D. et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits. Nature 429, 737–739 (2004)
Riebe, M. et al. Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms. Nature 429, 734–737 (2004)
Hammerer, K., Wolf, M. M., Polzik, E. S. & Cirac, J. I. Quantum benchmark for storage and transmission of coherent states. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150503 (2005)
Hammerer, K., Polzik, E. S. & Cirac, J. I. Teleportation and spin squeezing utilizing multimode entanglement of light with atoms. Phys. Rev. A 72, 052313 (2005)
Vaidman, L. Teleportation of quantum states. Phys. Rev. A 49, 1473–1476 (1994)
Julsgaard, B., Sherson, J., Fiurášek, J., Cirac, J. I. & Polzik, E. S. Experimental demonstration of quantum memory for light. Nature 432, 482–486 (2004)
Julsgaard, B., Kozhekin, A. & Polzik, E. S. Experimental long-lived entanglement of two macroscopic objects. Nature 413, 400–403 (2001)
Julsgaard, B., Schori, C., Sørensen, J. L. & Polzik, E. S. Atomic spins as a storage medium for quantum fluctuations of light. Quant. Inf. Comput. 3 (special issue), 518–534 (2003)
Julsgaaard, B., Sherson, J., Sørensen, J. L. & Polzik, E. S. Characterizing the spin state of an atomic ensemble using the magneto-optical resonance method. J. Opt. B 6, 5–14 (2004)
Sherson, J., Julsgaaard, B. & Polzik, E. S. Deterministic atom-light quantum interface. Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (in the press); preprint at http://arxiv.org/quant-ph/0601186 (2006).
Chou, C. W., Polyakov, S. V., Kuzmich, A. & Kimble, H. J. Single-photon generation from stored excitation in an atomic ensemble. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213601 (2004)
Chaneliere, T. et al. Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories. Nature 438, 833–836 (2005)
Eisaman, M. D. et al. Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses. Nature 438, 837–841 (2005)
Kuhn, A., Hennrich, M. & Rempe, G. Deterministic single-photon source for distributed quantum networking. Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067901 (2002)
McKeever, J. et al. Deterministic generation of single photons from one atom trapped in a cavity. Science 303, 1992–1994 (2004)
Neergaard-Nielsen, J. S., Melholt Nielsen, B., Hettich, C., Mølmer, K. & Polzik, E. S. Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083604 (2006)
Polzik, E. S., Carri, J. & Kimble, H. J. Spectroscopy with squeezed light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3020–3023 (1992)
The experiment was performed at the Niels Bohr Institute, and was funded by the Danish National Research Foundation through the Center for Quantum Optics (QUANTOP), by EU grants COVAQIAL and QAP, and by the Carlsberg Foundation. I.C. and E.S.P. acknowledge the hospitality of the Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (ICFO) in Barcelona where ideas leading to this work were first discussed. The permanent address of K.H. is the Institut für theoretische Physik, Innsbruck, Austria.
Reprints and permissions information is available at www.nature.com/reprints. The authors declare no competing financial interests.
This file contains additional details on the following methods used in this study. Atomic state variances, optimization of classical gains and the fidelity calculation. Projection noise measurement and determination of the coupling constant κ. Atomic decoherence. (DOC 225 kb)
Calculation of the fidelity for a qubit teleportation and a protocol with improved fidelity. (DOC 124 kb)
About this article
Cite this article
Sherson, J., Krauter, H., Olsson, R. et al. Quantum teleportation between light and matter. Nature 443, 557–560 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05136
Helicene-derived aggregation-induced emission conjugates with highly tunable circularly polarized luminescence
Materials Chemistry Frontiers (2020)
Controlling Metallophilic Interactions in Chiral Gold(I) Double Salts towards Excitation Wavelength‐Tunable Circularly Polarized Luminescence
Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2020)
Influence of thermally induced structural transformations on the magnetic and luminescence properties of tartrate-based chiral lanthanide organic-frameworks
Journal of Materials Chemistry C (2020)
Angewandte Chemie (2020)
Chiral thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters with dual conformations based on a pair of enantiomeric donors containing asymmetric carbons
Dyes and Pigments (2020)