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Toll-like receptors and antibody responses (Reply)

Naturevolume 441pageE4 (2006) | Download Citation



Using a range of different experimental approaches (and not just analyses of MyD88-deficient mice), we showed that, contrary to the prevailing view, a T-helper response is not sufficient for the generation of optimal T-dependent antibody responses, and that Toll-like-receptor (TLR) signalling in B cells is also required1. Similar results have since been obtained in human B cells2. Nemazee et al.3 now question our conclusions1.

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  1. 1

    Pasare, C. & Medzhitov, R. Nature 438, 364–368 (2005).

  2. 2

    Ruprecht, C. R. & Lanzavecchia, A. Eur. J. Immunol. 36, 810–816 (2006).

  3. 3

    Nemazee, D., Gavin, A., Hoebe, K. & Beutler, B. Nature 441, doi:10.1038/nature04875 (2006).

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  1. Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Immunology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, 06510, Connecticut, USA

    • C. Pasare
    •  & R. Medzhitov


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Correspondence to R. Medzhitov.

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