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Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment

Nature volume 441, pages 629632 (01 June 2006) | Download Citation

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Abstract

Human-driven ecosystem simplification has highlighted questions about how the number of species in an ecosystem influences its functioning. Although biodiversity is now known to affect ecosystem productivity1,2,3,4,5,6, its effects on stability are debated6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13. Here we present a long-term experimental field test of the diversity–stability hypothesis. During a decade of data collection in an experiment that directly controlled the number of perennial prairie species4, growing-season climate varied considerably, causing year-to-year variation in abundances of plant species and in ecosystem productivity. We found that greater numbers of plant species led to greater temporal stability of ecosystem annual aboveground plant production. In particular, the decadal temporal stability of the ecosystem, whether measured with intervals of two, five or ten years, was significantly greater at higher plant diversity and tended to increase as plots matured. Ecosystem stability was also positively dependent on root mass, which is a measure of perenniating biomass. Temporal stability of the ecosystem increased with diversity, despite a lower temporal stability of individual species, because of both portfolio (statistical averaging) and overyielding effects. However, we found no evidence of a covariance effect. Our results indicate that the reliable, efficient and sustainable supply of some foods (for example, livestock fodder), biofuels and ecosystem services can be enhanced by the use of biodiversity.

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Acknowledgements

We thank J. Fargione for insightful comments, and T. Mielke, N. Larson, S. Bauer and our summer interns for assistance. The National Science Foundation, the Bush Foundation and the Andrew Mellon Foundation provided financial support.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA

    • David Tilman
  2. Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, 1530 North Cleveland Avenue, St Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA

    • Peter B. Reich
  3. School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, 348 Manter Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0118, USA

    • Johannes M. H. Knops

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Reprints and permissions information is available at npg.nature.com/reprintsandpermissions. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to David Tilman.

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https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04742

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